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June 8th, 2011:

Action Smoking Health Australia Tobacco industry news – RICO convicted racketeers


2006: US District Court Judge Gladys Kessler’s damning judgment against Big Tobacco in a landmark US government lawsuit against the major companies.

She found they’d violated civil racketeering laws, defrauded the public, lied for decades about targeting of children and health risks of smoking.

See summary at and  full judgment     Some excerpts:

[The tobacco companies] have not ceased engaging in unlawful activity… Their continuing conduct misleads consumers in order to maximize … revenues

by recruiting new smokers (the majority of whom are under the age of 18), preventing current smokers from quitting, and thereby sustaining the industry.

[This industry] … survives, and profits, from selling a highly addictive product which causes diseases that lead to a staggering number of deaths…

an immeasurable amount of human suffering and economic loss, and a profound burden on our national health care system.

Defendants have known these facts for at least 50 years or more… [but] have  consistently, repeatedly, and with enormous skill and sophistication, denied these facts

to the public, to the Government, and to the public health community… [they] have marketed and sold their lethal products with zeal, with deception,

with a single-minded focus on their financial success, and without regard for the human tragedy or social costs that success exacted.

why can we not have similar disclosures in Hong Kong ? all politicians and parties hould be revealing their puppet strings funding sources for the public to make informed decisions

Tobacco: Top Recipients

Top 20 Recipients

Rank Candidate Office Amount
1 Burr, Richard (R-NC) Senate $146,191
2 Meek, Kendrick B (D-FL) House $98,742
3 Boehner, John (R-OH) House $49,900
4 Rubio, Marco (R-FL) $49,100
5 Camp, Dave (R-MI) House $47,350
6 McConnell, Mitch (R-KY) Senate $40,900
7 Hurt, Robert (R-VA) $38,550
8 Etheridge, Bob (D-NC) House $30,100
9 Crist, Charlie (I-FL) $29,300
10 Cantor, Eric (R-VA) House $27,850
11 Blunt, Roy (R-MO) House $26,500
12 Nelson, Bill (D-FL) Senate $25,600
13 Isakson, Johnny (R-GA) Senate $25,000
14 Buyer, Steve (R-IN) House $24,500
15 McIntyre, Mike (D-NC) House $22,550
16 Webb, James (D-VA) Senate $22,000
17 Sessions, Pete (R-TX) House $21,000
17 Latham, Tom (R-IA) House $21,000
19 Whitfield, Ed (R-KY) House $20,500
20 Vitter, David (R-LA) Senate $19,500
20 Bright, Bobby (D-AL) House $19,500

METHODOLOGY: The numbers on this page are based on contributions from PACs and individuals giving $200 or more.

All donations took place during the 2009-2010 election cycle and were released by the Federal Election Commission on Monday, April 25, 2011.


The tobacco industry, once a lobbying juggernaut, has watched its political influence wane as its cancer-causing products became increasingly toxic – politically speaking.

The contributions to federal candidates and political committees from the tobacco industry, which includes makers of cigarettes, cigars and smokeless tobacco, as well as their trade groups, have drastically decreased since 2002. [Read more Background]

Top Contributors, 2009-2010

Contributor Amount
Altria Group $1,368,335
Reynolds American $520,771
Vector Group $305,375
Lorillard Tobacco $141,300
Swisher International $140,050
Commonwealth Brands $78,650
Swedish Match North America $74,000
Philip Morris International $42,220
Dosal Tobacco $38,400
Eby-Brown Co $35,900
Universal Corp $31,850
Liggett Vector Brands $28,264
JC Newman Cigars $24,417
S&M Brands $21,250
Intl Premium Cigar & Pipe Retailers Assn $20,500
Cigar Assn of America $19,177
Holt’s Cigar $18,750
Piloto Cigars $18,700
New Century Tobacco $17,050
Corona Cigar $13,050

…view more Contributors

Contribution Trends, 1990-2010

…view Totals

Top Lobbying Clients, 2010

Client/Parent Total
Altria Group $10,360,000
Lorillard Inc $2,170,000
Reynolds American $1,926,881
Vector Group $490,000
Swisher International $390,000

Lobbying Totals, 1998-2010

…view more Lobbying

Party Split, 1990-2010

Top Recipients, 2009-2010

Candidate Office Amount
Burr, Richard (R-NC) Senate $146,191
Meek, Kendrick B (D-FL) House $98,742
Boehner, John (R-OH) House $49,900
Rubio, Marco (R-FL) $49,100
Camp, Dave (R-MI) House $47,350

…view more Recipients

Average Contributions to Members of Congress, 1990-2010 

…view more Money to Congress

Data for the current election cycle were released by the Federal Election Commission on Monday, April 25, 2011

Feel free to distribute or cite this material, but please credit the Center for Responsive Politics.

Tobacco pleads for pack delay

8 June 2011

CIGARETTE giant British American Tobacco Australia has demanded a longer phase-in period for tobacco plain packaging, describing the start date of July 1 next year as “unworkable”.

BATA, the manufacturer of the Winfield, Benson & Hedges and Dunhill brands, argues in its submission on the legislation to introduce plain packaging for cigarettes that “just single-brand pack changes can take many months to flush through the entire market”.

“To assume a total industry pack change will take less than 12 months to effect is unrealistic,” the BATA submission says.

The claim comes as Australia faces a backlash in World Trade Organisation forums over tobacco plain packaging, even before the measure becomes law.

The Dominican Republic has added the plain packaging bill to the agenda for this week’s meeting in Geneva of the council for TRIPS, the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

Related Coverage

TRIPS contains conditions for copyright, trade dress and trademark protection that member nations’ laws must meet.

The Dominican Republic is questioning plain packaging’s “compatibility with the agreement”, according to an agenda notice seen by The Australian.

Article 20 of the TRIPS agreement states the “use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special requirements, such as . . . use in a manner detrimental to its capability to distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings”.

The WTO move comes as more US business groups write to the Gillard government, expressing fear over the impact of plain packaging on the global intellectual property regime.

The National Foreign Trade Council, the National Association of Manufacturers and the US Chamber of Commerce have warned the proposals breach TRIPS, but Trade Minister Craig Emerson has rejected their claims


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the chemical compound. For other uses, see Nicotine (disambiguation).

Systematic (IUPAC) name
CAS number 54-11-5
ATC code N07BA01
PubChem 942
ChemSpider 138742
Chemical data
Formula C10H14N2
Mol. mass 162.26 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules &PubChem
Physical data
Density 1.01 g/cm³
Melt. point -79 °C (-110 °F)
Boiling point 247 °C (477 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism ?
Half life 2 hours
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. D(US)
Legal status Unscheduled(AU)?(UK) ?(US)
Dependence Liability Medium to high
Routes Smoked (as tobacco),Insufflated (as snuff), Chewed

Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) which constitutes approximately 0.6–3.0% of dry weight of tobacco,[1][2] with biosynthesis taking place in the roots, and accumulating in the leaves. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical with particular specificity to insects; therefore nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past, and currently nicotine analogs such as imidacloprid continue to be widely used.

In low concentrations (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammalsand is one of the main factors responsible for the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking. According to the American Heart Association, “Nicotine addiction has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break.” The pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine tobacco addiction are similar to those that determine addiction to drugs such as heroin andcocaine.[3]

History and name

Nicotine is named after the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, which in turn is named after Jean Nicot de VillemainFrench ambassador in Portugal, who sent tobacco and seeds from Brazil to Paris in 1560 and promoted their medicinal use. Nicotine was first isolated from the tobacco plant in 1828 by German chemists Posselt & Reimann.[citation needed] Its chemical empirical formula was described by Melsens in 1843,[4] its structure was discovered byAdolf Pinner in 1893, and it was first synthesized by A. Pictet and Crepieux in 1904.[citation needed]


Nicotine is a hygroscopic, oily liquid that is miscible with water in itsbase form. As a nitrogenous base, nicotine forms salts with acidsthat are usually solid and water soluble. Nicotine easily penetrates the skin. As shown by the physical data, free base nicotine will burn at a temperature below its boiling point, and its vapors will combust at 308 K (35 °C/95 °F) in air despite a low vapor pressure. Because of this, most of the nicotine is burned when a cigarette is smoked; however, enough is inhaled to provide the desired effects.

Optical activity

Nicotine is optically active, having two enantiomeric forms. The naturally-occurring form of nicotine is levorotatory, with [α]D = –166.4 °. The dextrorotatory form, (+)-nicotine, has only one-half the physiological activity of (–)-nicotine. It is therefore weaker in the sense that a higher dose is required to attain the same effects.[5]The salts of the (+)-nicotine are usually dextrorotatory.



As nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream and can cross the blood-brain barrier. On average it takes about seven seconds for the substance to reach the brain when inhaled. The half life of nicotine in the body is around two hours.[6] The amount of nicotine inhaled with tobacco smoke is a fraction of the amount contained in the tobacco leaves. The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from smoking depends on many factors, including the type of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled, and whether a filter is used. For chewing tobaccodipping tobacco and snuff, which are held in the mouth between the lip and gum, or taken in the nose, the amount released into the body tends to be much greater than smoked tobacco. Nicotine ismetabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes (mostly CYP2A6, and also by CYP2B6). A major metabolite is cotinine.


Nicotine acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, specifically the ganglion type nicotinic receptor and oneCNS nicotinic receptor. The former is present in the adrenal medulla and elsewhere, while the latter is present in the central nervous system (CNS). In small concentrations, nicotine increases the activity of these receptors. Nicotine also has effects on a variety of other neurotransmitters through less direct mechanisms.


By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, nicotine increases the levels of several neurotransmitters – acting as a sort of “volume control”. It is thought that the increased levels of dopamine in the reward circuits of the brainis what is responsible for the euphoria/pleasurerelaxation and eventual addiction caused by nicotine consumption.

Tobacco smoke contains the monoamine oxidase inhibitors harman and norharman[7], and significantly decreases MAO activity in smokers.[7][8] MAO enzymes break down monoaminergic neurotransmitters such asdopaminenorepinephrineserotonin.

Chronic nicotine exposure via tobacco smoking up-regulates alpha4beta2* nAChR in cerebellum and brainstemregions[9][10] but not habenulopeduncular structures[11].


Nicotine also activates the sympathetic nervous system,[12] acting via splanchnic nerves to the adrenal medulla, stimulates the release of epinephrine. Acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers of these nerves acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, causing the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into thebloodstream.

In adrenal medulla

By binding to ganglion type nicotinic receptors in the adrenal medulla nicotine increases flow of adrenaline(epinephrine), a stimulating hormone. By binding to the receptors, it causes cell depolarization and an influx ofcalcium through voltage-gated calcium channels. Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and thus the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into the bloodstream. The release of epinephrine(adrenaline) causes an increase in heart rateblood pressure and respiration, as well as higher blood glucoselevels[13]

Cotinine is a byproduct of the metabolism of nicotine which remains in the blood for up to 48 hours. It can therefore be used as an indicator of a person’s exposure to smoke.[citation needed]

Psychoactive effects

Nicotine’s mood-altering effects are different by report. First causing a release of glucose from the liver andepinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal medulla, it causes stimulation. Users report feelings of relaxation, sharpness, calmness, and alertness.[14] By reducing the appetite and raising the metabolism, some smokersmay lose weight as a consequence.[15][16]

When a cigarette is smoked, nicotine-rich blood passes from the lungs to the brain within seven seconds and immediately stimulates the release of many chemical messengers including acetylcholinenorepinephrine,epinephrinevasopressinargininedopamineautocrine agents, and beta-endorphin[citation needed]. This release of neurotransmitters and hormones is responsible for most of nicotine effects. Nicotine appears to enhanceconcentration[17] and memory due to the increase of acetylcholine. It also appears to enhance alertness due to the increases of acetylcholine and norepinephrineArousal is increased by the increase of norepinephrinePainis reduced by the increases of acetylcholine and beta-endorphinAnxiety is reduced by the increase of beta-endorphin. Nicotine also sensitises brain reward systems.[18] Most cigarettes (in the smoke inhaled) contain 0.1 to 2.8 milligrams of nicotine.[19]

Research suggests that, when smokers wish to achieve a stimulating effect, they take short quick puffs, which produce a low level of blood nicotine.[20] This stimulates nerve transmission. When they wish to relax, they take deep puffs, which produce a high level of blood nicotine, which depresses the passage of nerve impulses, producing a mild sedative effect. At low doses, nicotine potently enhances the actions of norepinephrine anddopamine in the brain, causing a drug effect typical of those of psychostimulants. At higher doses, nicotine enhances the effect of serotonin and opiate activity, producing a calming, pain-killing effect. Nicotine is unique in comparison to most drugs, as its profile changes from stimulant to sedative/pain killer in increasing dosages and use.

Nicotine gum, usually in 2-mg or 4-mg doses, and nicotine patches are available, that do not have all the other ingredients in smoked tobacco.


See also: Smoking cessation

Modern research shows that nicotine acts on the brain to produce a number of effects. Specifically, its addictive nature has been found to show that nicotine activates reward pathways—the circuitry within the brain that regulates feelings of pleasure and euphoria.[21]

To reduce the health effects of cigarette smoking, the best thing to do is to quit. Public health authorities do not endorse either smoking fewer cigarettes or switching to lower tar and nicotine brands as a satisfactory way of reducing risk.[22]

Dopamine is one of the key neurotransmitters actively involved in the brain. Research shows that by increasing the levels of dopamine within the reward circuits in the brain, nicotine acts as a chemical with intense addictive qualities. In many studies it has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine and heroin, though chronic treatment has an opposite effect on reward thresholds. Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine causes down-regulation of the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters as the brain attempts to compensate for artificial stimulation. In addition, the sensitivity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors decreases. To compensate for this compensatory mechanism, the brain in turn upregulates the number of receptors, convoluting its regulatory effects with compensatory mechanisms meant to counteract other compensatory mechanisms. The net effect is an increase in reward pathway sensitivity, opposite of other drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin, which reduce reward pathway sensitivity.[23] This neuronal brain alteration persists for months after administration ceases. Due to an increase in reward pathway sensitivity, nicotine withdrawal is relatively mild compared to ethanol or heroin withdrawal.[citation needed] Nicotine also has the potential to cause dependence in many animals other than humans. Mice have been administered nicotine and exhibit withdrawalreactions when its administration is stopped.[citation needed]

A study found that nicotine exposure in adolescent mice retards the growth of the dopamine system, thus increasing the risk of substance abuse during adolescence.[24]


The LD50 of nicotine is 50 mg/kg for rats and 3 mg/kg for mice. 40–60 mg (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) can be a lethal dosage for adult humans.[25][26] Nicotine therefore has a high toxicity in comparison to many other alkaloids such as cocaine, which has an LD50 of 95.1 mg/kg when administered to mice. It is impossible however to overdose on nicotine through smoking alone (though a person can overdose on nicotine through a combination of nicotine patches, nicotine gum, and/or tobacco smoking at the same time) whereas an estimated 5244 people have died from cocaine overdoses in New York City, New York between the years of 1990 and 1998[27] [28] Spilling an extremely high concentration of nicotine onto the skin can result in intoxication or even death since nicotine readily passes into the bloodstream from dermal contact.[29]

The carcinogenic properties of nicotine in standalone form, separate from tobacco smoke, have not been evaluated by the IARC, and it has not been assigned to an official carcinogen group. The currently available literature indicates that nicotine, on its own, does not promote the development of cancer in healthy tissue and has no mutagenic properties, but does speed growth and migration of existing cancerous cells, as well as turning some precancerous cells cancerous.[30]

The teratogenic properties of nicotine have not yet been adequately researched, and while the likelihood of birth defects caused by nicotine is believed to be very small or nonexistent, nicotine replacement product manufacturers recommend consultation with a physician before using a nicotine patch or nicotine gum while pregnant or nursing. However, nicotine and the increased cholinergic activity it causes have been shown to impede apoptosis, which is one of the methods by which the body destroys unwanted cells (programmed cell death). Since apoptosis helps to remove mutated or damaged cells that may eventually become cancerous, the inhibitory actions of nicotine may create a more favourable environment for cancer to develop, though this also remains to be proven. [31]

Nicotine and oxidative stress

Nicotine is detoxified by the cytochrome p450 in the liver.

Link to circulatory disease

Nicotine has very powerful effects on arteries throughout the body. Nicotine is a stimulant, speeding up the heart by about 20 beats per minute with every cigarette;[citation needed] it raises blood pressure, and is avasoconstrictor, making it harder for the heart to pump through the constricted arteries. It causes the body to release its stores of fat and cholesterol into the blood.

Nicotine has been speculated to increase the risk of blood clots by increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, though this has not been proven. Plasma fibrinogen levels are elevated in smokers and are further elevated during acute COPD exacerbation. Also, Factor XIII, which stabilizes fibrin clots, is increased in smokers. But neither of the two previous effects have been shown yet to be caused by nicotine, [4] If blood clots in an artery, blood flow is reduced or halted, and tissue loses its source of oxygen and nutrients and dies in minutes.

Peripheral circulation, arteries going to the extremities, are also highly susceptible to the vasoconstrictor effects of nicotine as well as the increased risk of clots and clogging.[citation needed]

Therapeutic uses

The primary therapeutic use of nicotine is in treating nicotine dependence in order to eliminate smoking with its risks to health. Controlled levels of nicotine are given to patients through gums, dermal patches, lozenges, electronic/substitute cigarettes or nasal sprays in an effort to wean them off their dependence.

However, in a few situations, smoking has been observed to apparently be of therapeutic value to patients. These are often referred to as “Smoker’s Paradoxes”.[32] Although in most cases the actual mechanism is understood only poorly or not at all, it is generally believed that the principal beneficial action is due to the nicotine administered, and that administration of nicotine without smoking may be as beneficial as smoking, without the higher risk to health due to tar and other ingredients found in tobacco.

For instance, recent studies suggest that smokers require less frequent repeated revascularization afterpercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).[32] Risk of ulcerative colitis has been frequently shown to be reduced by smokers on a dose-dependent basis; the effect is eliminated if the individual stops smoking.[33][34] Smoking also appears to interfere with development of Kaposi’s sarcoma,[35] breast cancer among women carrying the very high risk BRCA gene,[36] preeclampsia,[37] and atopic disorders such as allergic asthma.[38] A plausible mechanism of action in these cases may be nicotine acting as an anti-inflammatory agent, and interfering with the inflammation-related disease process, as nicotine has vasoconstrictive effects.[39]

With regard to neurological diseases, a large body of evidence suggests that the risks of Parkinson’s disease orAlzheimer’s disease might be twice as high for non-smokers than for smokers.[40] Many such papers regarding Alzheimer’s disease[41] and Parkinson’s Disease[42] have been published. More recent studies find that there’s no beneficial link between smoking and Alzheimer’s, and in some cases suggest that it actually results in an earlier onset of the disease.[43][44][45][46]

Recent studies have indicated that nicotine can be used to help adults suffering from Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The same areas that cause seizures in that form of epilepsy are also responsible for processing nicotine in the brain.[47]

It has been noted that the majority of people diagnosed with schizophrenia smoke tobacco. Estimates for the number of schizophrenics that smoke range from 75% to 90%. It was recently argued that the increased level of smoking in schizophrenia may be due to a desire to self-medicate with nicotine.[48][49] More recent research has found the reverse, that it is a risk factor without long-term benefit, used only for its short term effects.[50] All of these studies are based only on observation, and no interventional (randomized) studies have been done. Research on nicotine as administered through a patch or gum is ongoing.

Research as a potential basis for an antipsychotic agent

However, when the metabolites of nicotine were isolated and their effect on first the animal brain and then the human brain in people with schizophrenia were studied, it was shown that the effects helped with cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Therefore, the nicotinergic agents, as antipsychotics which do not contain nicotine but act on the same receptors in the brain are showing promise as adjunct antipsychotics in early stages of FDA studies on schizophrenia. “The prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a phenomenon in which a weak prepulse attenuates the response to a subsequent startling stimulus. Therefore, PPI is believed to have face, construct, and predictive validity for the PPI disruption in schizophrenia, and it is widely used as a model to study the neurobiology of this disorder and for screening antipsychotics. The prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a phenomenon in which a weak prepulse attenuates the response to a subsequent startling stimulus. Alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonists have reported to reverse the PPI disruption.” Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Neuroscience, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon 791-0295, Japan.

Additionally, studies have shown that there are genes predisposing people with schizophrenia to nicotine. “Evidence of association between smoking and alpha7 nicotinic receptor subunit gene in schizophrenia patients” .De Luca V, Wong AH, Muller DJ, Wong GW, Tyndale RF, Kennedy JL. Neurogenetics Section, Clarke Site, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Therefore with these factors taken together the heavy usage of cigarettes and other nicotine related products among people with schizophrenia may be explained and novel antipsychotic agents developed that have these effects in a manner that is not harmful and controlled and is a promising arena of research for schizophrenia.

Nicotine and its metabolites are being researched for the treatment of a number of disorders, including ADHD,Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s Disease.[51]

The therapeutic use of nicotine as a means of appetite-control and to promote weight loss is anecdotally supported by many ex-smokers who claim to put on weight after quitting. Studies of nicotine in mice[52] suggest it may play a role in weight-loss that is independent of appetite and studies involving the elderly suggest that nicotine affects not only weight loss, but also prevents some weight gain.[53]

External links


  1. ^Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake“. Retrieved on 2008-10-05.
  2. ^Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9” (PDF).
  3. ^ American Heart Association and Nicotine addiction.
  4. ^ Melsens (1844). “Ueber das Nicotin”. Journal für Praktische Chemie 32 (1): 372–377.doi:10.1002/prac.18440320155.
  5. ^Optical activity and living matter“.
  6. ^Interindividual variability in the metabolism and cardiovascular effects of nicotine in man“.
  7. a b Herraiz T, Chaparro C (2005). “Human monoamine oxidase is inhibited by tobacco smoke: beta-carboline alkaloids act as potent and reversible inhibitors”. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 326 (2): 378–86. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.11.033PMID 15582589.
  8. ^ Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Wang GJ, et al (1998). “Neuropharmacological actions of cigarette smoke: brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) inhibition”. J Addict Dis 17 (1): 23–34. PMID 9549600.
  9. ^ Wüllner U, Gündisch D, Herzog H, et al (2008). “Smoking upregulates alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the human brain”. Neurosci. Lett. 430 (1): 34–7.doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2007.10.011PMID 17997038.
  10. ^ Walsh H, Govind AP, Mastro R, et al (2008). “Up-regulation of nicotinic receptors by nicotine varies with receptor subtype”. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (10): 6022–32. doi:10.1074/jbc.M703432200PMID 18174175.
  11. ^ Nguyen HN, Rasmussen BA, Perry DC (2003). “Subtype-selective up-regulation by chronic nicotine of high-affinity nicotinic receptors in rat brain demonstrated by receptor autoradiography”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 307 (3): 1090–7. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.056408PMID 14560040.
  12. ^ Paper published on PubMed
  13. ^ Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology (7th Ed.). Pearson. pp. ?.ISBN 0-805-35909-5.
  14. ^ Gilbert Lagrue, François Lebargy, Anne Cormier, “From nicotinic receptors to smoking dependence: therapeutic prospects” Alcoologie et Addictologie Vol. : 23, N° : 2S, juin 2001, pages 39S – 42
  15. ^ Jean-Claude Orsini, “Dependence on tobacco smoking and brain systems controlling glycemia and appetite” Alcoologie et Addictologie Vol. : 23, N° : 2S, juin 2001, pages 28S – 36S
  16. ^ Smokers lose their appetite : Media Releases : News : The University of Melbourne
  17. ^ Rusted, J; Graupner, O’Connell, Nicholls (1994-05-05). “Does nicotine improve cognitive function?“.Psychopharmacology (Springer-Verlag) (115): 547–549 Retrieved on 15 November 2008.
  18. ^ Kenny PJ, Markou A. “Nicotine self-administration acutely activates brain reward systems and induces a long-lasting increase in reward sensitivity”. However, these effects are an illusion brought about by Nicotine addiction. What appears to be relaxation, is mere

Malacca becomes Malaysia’s first smoking-free city – AFP

June 8, 2011

The Malaysian world heritage city of Malacca will be smoke-free from June 15, a first for the country, the health minister said Monday.

The move was to bring in more tourists and help stamp out smoking in a country where the habit is widespread, Liow Tiong Lai told AFP, insisting it would also help preserve the city.

“The idea is to create fresh air and a clean environment for tourists and Malaysians alike to enjoy the historic city,” he said.

“It will also aid in preserving the old monuments and buildings as the ban will reduce pollution in the area and promote a healthy lifestyle.”

The no-smoking area covers the entire 4.2 square kilometres (1.6 square miles) of the city and four other areas in the southern state of Malacca.

“These areas will be free from cigarette smoke and make Malacca city the first smoking-free city in the country,” said the minister.

“Those caught will be hit with a fine of 300 ringgit (100 dollars) although the maximum penalty is 5,000 ringgit.”

Malacca chief minister Mohamad Ali Rustam told the Star daily that the state was also serious about declaring more tourist destinations in the state smoke-free zones.

With more than 500 years of trading and cultural exchanges between East and West, Malacca’s multi-cultural heritage is seen its ornately designed government buildings, churches and forts.

It is where the Malay sultanate originated in the 15th century, before being invaded by the Portuguese and Dutch in the early 16th century.

In 2008, UNESCO included Malacca and Georgetown, on the resort island of Penang, in its world heritage list but there have been recent concerns that the southern port city could be de-listed because of redevelopment in its historic quarter.

Malaysia is hoping the heritage listing will boost tourism, which is a key foreign exchange earner.



Seized Cigarettes by Hong Kong Customs Not Resol

2011-06-08 18:40:48    Xinhua      Web Editor: Zhangjin

All illicit cigarettes seized by the Hong Kong Customs and Excise Department are destroyed and cannot be retrieved for reuse, the city’s Acting Secretary for Financial Services and the Treasury Julia Leung said Wednesday.

Leung told local lawmakers Wednesday that confiscated cigarettes have not been sold since 1999. They are forfeited upon court order, or on the condition no legal claim is made, according to the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance.

Between 2002 and April this year, the department has forfeited 993 million cigarettes, of which 85 percent have been destroyed without any auctions. Destruction of the remainder is pending.

The department disposes of cigarettes at landfills, upon Environmental Protection Department approval.