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January 6th, 2017:

Governments To Introduce Super Tax On Tobacco Industry

Cigarettes are the most effective killing machine on the planet. Something radical has to be done to stop 1 in 7 of children becoming smokers.

1 billion people smoke cigarettes which in time will kill half of its users amounting to over 6 million people each year. That’s equivalent to wiping out the population of Britain in a decade.

Meanwhile, the world leading tobacco companies boast an income of $315 billion and the top 6 companies make profits of $44bn.

Tobacco deaths account for 20% of all cancer cases. 14 million people are diagnosed with cancer each year. And before people buy into the highly addictive E- cigarettes as the ‘healthy’ option, according to the World Cancer Report, they contain 3,000 chemicals and 28 carcinogens with similar nasties as cigarettes.

Just as 1,000 leading doctors are calling on Theresa May to create a brave new policy on smoking, a bold clear thinking leader could easily introduce a Super Tax forcing tobacco companies to set aside monies to build and run standalone cancer hospitals exclusively for the use of its loyal customers that they are killing. This would reduce substantial pressure on hospitals and release monies to care for people who do not choose habits that make them ill.

There are enough people sadly affected by illness not of their own making, so let’s eradicate the illnesses that are of our making and penalise the industries that make money out of suffering.

Every problem can be solved if we deal with the cause. It’s all about the cause but who wants to deal with the cause?

Obama just announced a bill to spend $6.3 billion to fight cancer over the next decade. Very admirable.

BUT how stupid are we?

Over 2.5 million of cancer deaths per year are avoidable. Main causes being SMOKING, OVEREATING, ALCOHOL ABUSE.

It’s a sad fact of life that we are safest and cause less harm to ourselves and others when we are asleep!

Just as governments found the banks to be sitting ducks to fine handsomely for their misdemeanours, there is far higher justification to target the tobacco companies to save lives, save tax-payers money, save grief, save pain and save suffering.

Our addictions and bad habits cause the majority of our problems but only when we accept this brutal naked truth do we realise we have the power to change ourselves rather than pollute ourselves. Life is tough enough without making ourselves ill.

Many amazing people help and inspire us to overcome our addictions, yet governments are slow to do what is right to implement radical and aggressive change. It should be mandatory for school children to visit cancer wards from a young age to see the effects of cigarette and alcohol abuse as part of the curriculum as well as drug addiction facilities to witness how drugs can destroy people.

I have recently been staying in Manhattan Beach, a smoke free city in California. Here you can’t smoke outside anywhere. Someone made it happen. Other cities and countries could easily follow.

On Christmas Day, the legendary George Michael passed away. On the same day, a brave friend of mine Murray Goldstein also left us. Murray had an important message for the smokers in the world:

“My father was a heavy smoker all his life. He lived to 90 with the occasional cough. Had I known then that he was the exception to the rule I probably would never have become addicted. But in those days, there was no information available that told you smoking was bad for the health.

I smoked a few packets a day from the age of 16 and had a heart attack in my 30s because of smoking and poor diet. I carried on smoking which ruined my chance of a healthy life.

The last 12 years have been a form of purgatory as I have developed COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – which is irreversible, fighting for every breath. My world has revolved around my illness, affecting my near and dear ones especially my wife who has made a great sacrifice to care for me. During the last few years I have needed 24 hour care and the emergency services have revived me several times.

My advice to present day smokers – GIVE IT UP BEFORE YOU GET ILL – it’s not as hard as you think. Don’t wait until the first heart attack or the news that you have cancer. Please learn from my mistakes. I stopped 8 years ago and have never had any cravings and I was a forty-a-day man for years!”

Congratulations to all smokers who finally kick the habit and take Murray’s advice.

Meanwhile, our leaders would do well to reflect on Gandhi’s wise words:

“The difference between what we do and what we are capable of doing would solve most of the world’s problems.

E-cigarette flavours pose unknown harm risk

Electronic cigarette users are more at risk of lung damage if they use flavourings such as menthol and butterscotch, according to a new study by scientists at the University of Salford.

Scientists say that ‘vaping’ flavours contain toxins, including harmful substances that are not inhaled by users of standard tobacco cigarettes.

And they claim the huge variety of non-standard vaping liquids is exposing people, particularly younger smokers, to unknown risks.

Studies have shown that vaping liquids contain aldehydes, compounds which can cause damage to lungs, but the Salford study is the first to test flavoured liquids – inhaled as ‘smoke’ – on normal lung tissue.

All proved toxic

“We are talking about flavours which are normally ingested in food where tissue is much different from tissue in the lungs,” explains Dr Patricia Ragazzon of the Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Salford.

“When inhaled, some of the flavours we tested proved to be substantially toxic, with prolonged exposure killing bronchial cells completely.”

The experts, who publish their findings in the journal Scientific Progress, studied 20 liquid refills in nine flavours – cherry, strawberry, ice-mint, menthol, tobacco, blueberry, vanilla, bubble-gum and butterscotch – bought from shops, chemists and over the internet.

In laboratory tests on cell lines of human bronchial tissue, both embryonic and adult cells were exposed to vapour at a range of concentrations over 24, 48 and 72 hours. All proved toxic to the cells varying from less toxic (fruit flavours) to moderately to highly toxic (menthol, bubblegum, coffee, butterscotch and tobacco).

“We showed that cells can recover after 48 hours but not once they were exposed for 72 hours or more, which has serious implications for regular smokers,” said Dr Ragazzon.

Unregulated products

Moreover whilst adult cells were less impacted, the majority of samples proved moderately to highly toxic to the embryonic cells.

Of additional concern, she notes, is the huge variation of flavours and their component ingredients: “The composition of refills is highly irregular – some are natural flavours, some are single compounds, some are synthetic flavours, – there are so many varied products on the market, it’s difficult to gauge their harmfulness,” added Dr Ragazzon.

“Our work supports the opinion that e-cigarettes and especially the ingredients of the e-liquid, which can change in structure after the process of heating, have not been thoroughly characterised or evaluated for safety.”

Mom’s E-Cig Liquid Almost Kills Girl, 6

Dad accidentally gave daughter liquid nicotine that was in ibuprofen bottle

When a 6-year-old girl in Oregon sprained her ankle, her father reached for their liquid child ibuprofen bottle and gave his daughter a 10ml dose. She lost consciousness almost immediately and her limbs began to jerk, so he took a tiny sip and realized it was liquid nicotine for his wife’s e-cigarette; she had used the empty container to mix her own e-liquid, reports Health Day. The father called poison control and 911, and the girl barely survived a harrowing night in the emergency room and intensive care unit, where she was treated for acute nicotine poisoning and placed on a ventilator, the doctors report in the journal Annals of Emergency Medicine.

The case study comes on the heels of the surgeon general calling e-cigarettes “a major public health concern,” researchers write in a press release. “As electronic cigarette use proliferates, children are now increasingly at risk of toxicity from ingestions of much larger quantities of nicotine from highly concentrated refill liquid,” one toxicologist says. The girl had ingested 700 milligrams of liquid nicotine, higher than the 500mg threshold that can kill an adult, and her blood nicotine level was 348 nanograms per milliliter, far higher than the 12 to 54 ng/ml found after an adult smokes one regular cigarette, reports Live Science. The doctor says that “slightly different circumstances” would have easily led to “a tragic outcome.” (Many victims of e-liquid poisoning are younger than 4.)

Southampton smokers buying cheap cigarettes ‘unknowingly funding international terrorism’

Smokers who seek out cheap cigarettes and tobacco in Southampton are unknowingly helping to fund organised crime and even international terrorism.

That’s the fear of experts who say that millions of pounds in profits from illegal and fake tobacco products easily available from rogue traders is finding its way into the pockets of the worst of criminals and killers.

This week the Daily Echo has revealed how our exclusive research in Southampton has shown how a flood of illegal and fake tobacco products are openly being sold by some unscrupulous traders and individuals.

Our independent undercover investigators had no trouble in buying packets of cigarettes and roll you own (RYO) tobacco at a fraction of the true cost of legal, branded products.

We reported how many of the fake fags were actually made of poor grade tobacco and included such ingredients as rat droppings, human excrement, dead insects, plastic and asbestos.

And we told how there are fears that the trade in illegal and fake cigarettes was funding organised crime and even international terrorism.

Today we look at how the trade is funding the worst of crimes as gangs seek to profit from the high taxes levels in the UK that entice some smokers to seek cheaper products.

Those who buy counterfeit and illegal tobacco products are almost always unaware that they are unwittingly part of an elaborate criminal network that inflicts pain and misery throughout the globe.

The recent terror attacks in France and Germany as well as the Middle East and further afield have shown how dangerous these people can be.

Yet few buying cheap cigarettes or rolling tobacco in Southampton would make the link between their actions and the men and women people who control the killers.

Cheap tobacco products are made in unregulated factories around the world, especially in the Far East. The products are then smuggled into the UK which has some of the highest taxes on tobacco in the world. In some parts of the country as much as 50 per cent of rolling tobacco is believed to be illegal or fake brands.

The United Nation’s Security Council’s investigative body was reported to have found that millions of pounds in illicit tobacco revenue is reaching the Taliban and al-Qaeda. The UN also says it has found links to Congolese rebels who have been recruiting child soldiers and carrying out atrocities in the African country.

Europol – the European wide law enforcement agency – says that some countries in Eastern Europe and Asia act as transit countries where gangs can establish warehouses and factories before sending the finished goods to the lucrative Western European markets.

Joining in with the fight against the trade is HMRC who say that they are determined to stamp out illegal tobacco.

“HMRC will not cease in its efforts to track down cigarette smugglers and stop their activities,” said a spokesperson.

“In particular, the illicit trade in tobacco, alcohol and pharmaceuticals is more attractive to organised criminals than, for example, drug trafficking, given that it is a low-risk and high-value activity.

“The high profit margins associated with illicit trade are used to fund other criminal and terrorist activities, a fact not widely understood by the British public.”

Each year HMRC and Border Force prevent billions of cigarettes and hundreds of tonnes of illegal tobacco entering the UK. Inland, HMRC and Trading Standards departments make further seizures.

In the past five years (2011/12 to 2015/16) HMRC and Border Force have seized more than 8 billion cigarettes and close to 2,000 tonnes of RYO.

It’s not difficult to understand why smokers would seek cheap tobacco products. Examples discovered here in Southampton included a counterfeit packet of Amber Leaf tobacco that was sold to a researcher for £4 when its normal cost would be around £16.60 from legitimate traders.

A pack of 20 Mayfair Cigarettes was handed over for just £3 when the legitimate cost would be £8.39.

UK taxes on tobacco, and therefore prices, are among the highest in the world, and have been so for many years. This has led to many smokers seeking out cheaper alternatives, sometime purchasing products when they go abroad, or from ‘black market’ channels.

For example, a 10g pack of Roll Your Own (RYO) costs around £3.90 in the UK while 50g of RYO can be bought in Belgium for around £4.35 – five times the quantity for only a little bit more.

Test purchasing carried out as part of our research has shown illegal cigarettes are on sale in Southampton for as little as £2.50 per 20, with RYO on sale for £4.00 per 50g.

HMRC estimates that £2.4 billion in tax revenue was lost because of tobacco smuggling in 2015/16. Since the turn of the century (2000/1 to 2015/16) the total revenue loss is £41 billion, money that could be used to build hospitals and pay for schools as well as social care.

And illegal tobacco not only represents a loss of tax revenue to the Treasury but also a loss of turnover and profits to the UK’s estimated 57,000 retailers that sell tobacco products with 6,900 here in the South East.

The Daily Echo has worked with tobacco company JTI in its investigation into illegal tobacco sales in Southampton.

Steve Wilkins, JTI Anti-Illegal Trade Operations Director said: “The link of illegal tobacco to serious and organised crime is very real and together with the crime-fighting charity Crimestoppers, JTI hopes to rid our streets of illegal tobacco and stop criminals infiltrating our communities.”

Since September 2013, JTI has removed gantries from 26 retailers convicted of selling illegal tobacco.

“JTI has had to do this as we continue to see some independent retailers get sucked into this illegal trade, giving honest hard-working retailers a bad name. If this type of crime continues, customers who buy tobacco products will lose faith and trust in their local shops as the perception grows that the independent trade is rife with ‘dodgy cigarettes”, added Mr Wilkins.

“Smokers buying cheap fake cigarettes and tobacco on the streets of the UK may be getting more than they bargain for as these fake imitations has been found to contain asbestos, mould, dust, dead flies, rat droppings and even human excrement.

“JTI fully supports efforts to rid our streets of illegal tobacco and stop criminals infiltrating our communities, and would urge local residents to work with community groups and trading standards to eradicate this type of activity.”

A spokesperson for Crimestoppers told the Echo: “The link this trade has to serious and organised crime is very real, and with the help of information from the public on those supplying and selling these fake products, our aim is to ensure your community is a safe place to live.”

What do those trading and dealing in illegal tobacco risk?
• Criminal prosecution with a custodial sentence of up to 7 years (upper level crime)
• Financial wrongdoings penalties of up to 100% of the duty due (resulting from the sale of goods which are subject to unpaid duty) In 2015/16, 1,335 tobacco related wrongdoing penalties were issued
• Fines of up to £5,000 for selling illicit tobacco not bearing the UK duty paid fiscal markings
• Vehicle seized (if illicit tobacco products are transported in it)
Additional sanctions following successful prosecution
• HMRC may make confiscation orders under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002
• Prohibition on the sale of tobacco products for up to 6 months
• Revocation of the store’s alcohol licence
• National Lottery terminal may be removed
• If JTI tobacco gantry is in situ, this may be removed and any further assistance from JTI terminated.

The tobacco industry has identified four areas that make the UK an easy target for organised criminals to sell illegal and fake tobaccoproducts:

Plain packaging for packets of cigarettes introduced recently into the UK makes it much easier for gangs to produce fake tobacco products with no complicated designs to copy.
High taxes in the UK means more are tempted to buy cheaper illegal products from rogue traders.
The EU’s Tobacco Products Directive bans small packets of cigarettes and rolling tobacco which widens the price gap even more between legal and fake products.
The recent introduction of the retail display ban at stores where shelves are required to be hidden from view blurs the distinction between legal and fake tobacco products.
Anyone with information about this type of crime should contact Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.

E-cigarettes ‘slow sperm and kill off cells in a man’s balls – and THESE are the dangerous flavours’

Cinnamon flavour are slowing sperm down and bubblegum flavour is killing off cells in the testes, scientists have revealed

E-CIGARETTES could reduce a bloke’s chances of becoming a dad, experts have warned.

Toxic chemicals in the flavourings used in the devices have been found to damage a man’s fertility, new findings suggest.

In particular cinnamon flavoured e-cigs were found to make sperm slower swimmers, the latest study to raise health concerns about the devices found.

And, another popular flavour, bubblegum, kills off cells in the testicles which help produce sperm.

There are more than 2.6 million users of e-cigarettes in the UK, but experts warn the devices are not as safe as people may think.

Researchers at University College London found, even when no nicotine is included, e-cigarette flavourings could affect men’s chances of starting a family, the Daily Mail reported.

It is widely accepted, and backed up by scientific evidence, that regular cigarettes damage the DNA in sperm.

But, until now the dangers posed by e-cigs were not known.

The devices are sold and marketed as a healthier alternative to smoking, and used by many to try and stop their habit.

However, concerns have been raised that while the devices are useful to smokers wanting to quit, they are acting as a gateway, encouraging non-smokers to take up the dangerous habit.

The latest study comes after scientists at the University of Salford found e-cigarette flavourings like butterscotch and menthol kill of bronchial cells in the lungs, increasing the risk of damage.

The experts studied 20 liquid refills in nine flavours – cherry, strawberry, ice-mint, menthol, tobacco, blueberry, vanilla, bubble-gum and butterscotch – bought from shops, chemists and over the internet.


E-cigarettes STILL damage teenage health – even if they don’t lead to tobacco use

In tests on human lung tissue, both embryo and adult cells were exposed to vapour at a range of concentrations over 24, 48 and 72 hours.

All proved toxic to the cells, with fruit flavours having less impact than other flavours, the researchers noted.

Now, scientists fear the devices are harming mens’ fertility.

Dr Helen O’Neill, who presented her findings at the British Fertility Conference in Edinburgh yesterday, said chemicals such as coumarin, a cheaper version of cinnamon bark and found in e-cig liquids, are “damaging to sperm”.

She said: “In terms of motility, progression and concentration of sperm, there was a detrimental effect.

“Vaping is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, but nonetheless they are not without their harmful effects,” the Mail reported.

To arrive at their findings Dr O’Neill and her colleagues took sperm samples from 30 men.

The researchers then exposed the samples to two flavours of e-cig liquid – cinnamon and bubblegum.

They found the bubblegum flavour was found to be most damaging to the testicles, causing a condition called apoptosis, where cells are killed off.

Meanwhile, sperm exposed to high concentrations of the cinnamon flavour chemicals were found to be slower swimmers.

There are currently around 7,000 different e-cigarette flavours available to buy.

Yet, Dr O’Neill and her colleagues warn in their study: “Presently, there are no regulations on the use of these products.”

Many are only regulated as foodstuffs, based on being consumed rather than inhaled.

Public Health England has endorsed the use of e-cigarettes to help smokers to quit the habit with 20,000 citing them as helping them to quit in 2014.

Vaping is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, but nonetheless they are not without their harmful effects

Dr Helen O’NeillUniversity College London

But Action on Smoking and Health has called for e-cigarettes to be treated like other lit tobacco products until there is firm scientific evidence that they are not harmful.

Researchers at the University of Salford found after more than 72 hours of exposure to e cigarette chemicals, cells in the lungs did not recover.

Dr Patricia Ragazzon of the biomedical research centre at the university said: “We are talking about flavours which are normally ingested in food where tissue is much different from tissue in the lungs.

“The composition of refills is highly irregular – some are natural flavours, some are single compounds, some are synthetic flavours, – there are so many varied products on the market, it’s difficult to gauge their harmfulness.

“Our work supports the opinion that e-cigarettes and especially the ingredients of the e-liquid, which can change in structure after the process of heating, have not been thoroughly characterised or evaluated for safety.”

Both studies called for further research into the harmful effects of electronic cigarettes and better regulation of the devices internationally.

Altria Settles Vaping Dispute, Reynolds Moves Ahead at PTAB

Subsidiaries for tobacco companies Imperial Brands and Altria jointly filed Jan. 4 to end two patent infringement lawsuits even as Reynolds American Inc. has made progress in challenges to two of Imperial’s e-cigarette patents ( Fontem Ventures B.V. v. Nu Mark LLC , M.D.N.C., No. 1:16-cv-01259, Joint stipulation of dismissal 1/4/17 ).

Richmond, Va.-based e-cigarettee maker Altria Group Inc.’s Nu Mark LLC, and Imperial Brands plc’s Fontem Ventures B.V., filed a joint stipulation in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina to dismiss two suits brought by Fontem against Nu Mark last year. Fontem also sought a cut from sales of NuMark’s MarkTen XL and Green Smoke brands. Fontem and Altria told the court they had reached a settlement.

Three other patent infringement lawsuits filed last year by Amsterdam-based Fontem against Reynolds’s subsidiary R.J. Reynolds Vapor Co., seeking royalties on revenue from its Vuse Solo e-cigarettes, remain ongoing in the same federal court ( Fontem Ventures B.V. v. R.J. Reynolds Vapor Co., No. 1:16-cv-01255 (M.D.N.C. Oct. 26, 2016)).

Since 2014, Fontem has filed numerous patent infringement cases against e-cigarette companies, a move that put profits of the fast-growing e-cigarette industry at stake. It has previously settled its lawsuits with several companies, including Njoy Inc., Vapor Corp. and CB Distributors Inc.

The global e-cigarette and vapor market is expected to more than triple to $15.9 billion by 2019, from $5.2 billion in 2015, according to Bloomberg Intelligence.

Imperial Brands is known for its lucrative Blu e-cigarette business. Fontem bought the e-cigarette unit of Dragonite International Ltd, a company that was founded by the modern inventor of the e-cigarette, Hon Lik, in 2013. The deal helped it gain access to an extensive vaping product patent portfolio of Drangonit’s unit and earn royalties for Imperial.

Reynolds’ Defense Strategy

To push back, some e-cigarette companies have challenged the validity of Fontem’s patents at the Patent and Trademark Office. The agency’s Patent Trial and Appeal Board terminated NuMark’s challenge following its settlement with Fontem.

Reynolds has filed eight petitions challenging the validity of Fontem’s patents at the PTO. One was denied Jan 4, but Reynold’s succeeded in getting the PTAB to institute trials on two of its petitions Jan. 3 and Dec. 30, according to filings. The remaining five petitions, which were filed by Reynolds in August, are pending.

As of Oct. 31, 2016, 44 percent of 1,971 cases where the PTAB instituted trial on patent validity led to decisions that all claims were unpatentable, PTO data show. In 11 percent of case trials, the PTAB found some claims unpatentable. In just 1 percent of case trials, no instituted claims were found to be unpatentable. Other cases ended in settlements, dismissals or requests for adverse judgements.

Reynolds declined a request from Bloomberg BNA for comment. A spokesman for Altria said the company was pleased that its dispute with Fontem has been resolved. Fontem did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Proposals to ban smoking in cars carrying children

Plans to ban smoking in private vehicles carrying children are to be discussed, the health minister has announced.

Michelle O’Neill said it was “inconceivable that we continue to allow children to be exposed to such harm”.

In February 2016, Assembly members voted in favour of introducing the ban.

Similar legislation came into force in England and Wales in October 2015 and in Scotland in December 2016.

In the Republic of Ireland, a ban took effect last year.

The consultation will run from 6 January 2017 to 3 March 2017.

The draft regulations propose that the existing legislation, as set out in the Smoking (Northern Ireland) Order 2006, will be extended so that it will be an offence to:

• Smoke in a private vehicle with someone under 18 present
• Fail to prevent smoking in a private vehicle with someone under 18 present

‘Range of illnesses’

The minister said: “The health impact of exposure to second-hand smoke has long been recognised and indeed was the motivating factor behind the introduction of legislation to ban smoking in all indoor public and work places in 2007.”

The World Health Organisation recognises that second-hand smoke is a significant threat to health, particularly amongst children, who are more likely to suffer from range of illnesses.

The consultation will seek views on the proposed new offences, suggested exemptions and “views on how the new measures will be enforced”.

Revealed: Electronic cigarettes could damage sperm

Electronic cigarettes could damage men’s fertility through toxic chemicals in the flavourings, a study suggests.

Cinnamon-flavoured e-cigarettes in particular make sperm slower swimmers, according to the latest research to raise health concerns about the fashionable devices.

Bubblegum flavouring, another of the most popular, kills off cells in the testes which help to produce sperm, scientists found.

It is well known that cigarettes can damage men’s fertility through DNA damage to the sperm – while e-cigarettes are promoted as a healthier alternative to smoking.

But researchers at University College London found e-cigarette flavourings could affect men’s chances of starting a family, even when no nicotine is included.

It follows research that these flavourings, which are taken into the lungs within vapour from the aerosol, contain cancer-causing chemicals including formaldehyde.

And it comes as scientists at the University of Salford – who found e-cigarette flavourings such as butterscotch and menthol risk lung damage by killing off bronchial cells – call for better safety checks.

The danger to sperm is believed to come from chemicals in the flavourings such as coumarin, which is a cheaper version of cinnamon bark and commonly found in flavourings sold in the UK and made in China.

Lead author Dr Helen O’Neill, who presented the findings to the British Fertility Conference in Edinburgh yesterday, said the results were “shocking”.

“In terms of motility, progression and concentration of sperm, there was a detrimental effect,” she said. “E-cigarettes are promoted as the health alternative to smoking, the healthy thing to do.

“Vaping is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, but nonetheless they are not without their harmful effects.”

There are 7,000 different flavours of electronic cigarettes, but those tested were the two most popular – cinnamon and bubblegum – and ‘plain’ devices just containing propylene glycol, a tasteless liquid used in the production of the vapour. Sperm samples were taken from 30 men, tested with concentrations of the flavours similar to the average intake for casual and more habitual e-cigarette users.

Researchers found sperm exposed to the highest concentration of flavourings moved significantly more slowly, while their swimming speed was affected. The biggest impact came from the cinnamon flavour.

The men, who were undergoing IVF but had healthy sperm, were not able to use the devices directly, but the flavourings were inserted directly into the sperm in the concentrations they would be exposed to. No nicotine was included. A second experiment looked at how mice reacted to being exposed to the flavourings – it found cells in the testes were killed off by the chemicals in them.

Bubblegum had the worst effect, with the highest number of dying cells in the testes tissue.

Dr O’Neill said these chemicals may harm men’s fertility through the toxins they produce when heated in e-cigarettes.

Many flavourings are only regulated as foodstuffs, based on being consumed rather than inhaled.

Dr O’Neill said: “There is very little regulation before they are allowed onto the market.”