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October 24th, 2011:

Signs indicate HK anti-smoking drive works

I used to complain a lot about smokers joining the crowd in streets, those unmindful of the potential health hazards they’ve become. Not that much these days. Not only because I seldom hit the streets lately but statistically there are fewer people lighting up outdoors. At 11.1 per cent of people aged 15 or above, Hong Kong is poised to become the world’s first “smoke-free” city.

A large ‘No smoking’ sign at Causeway Bay’s Victoria Park in Chinese, English, Indonesian and Tagalog.

There are different versions on how one is defined as a smoker. The government defines a smoker as one who smokes at least once a day; to insurers, the title is already tagged on someone who consumed tobacco at least once in the past 12 months.

The figure was the result of a survey of 13,375 households conducted by the Census and Statistics Department from October to December last year. The steady decline in number of smokers can easily be attributed to a number of measures the city has implemented.

First, the government as continuously expanded the locations considered off-limits to smokers. Since July 2007, no person shall smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar, or pipe in indoor workplaces, most public places such as restaurants (after exemptions were lifted), public parks, beaches and transportation terminals. By September 2009, violators are slapped a fixed-fine of HK$1,500 (US$192.8), making it at par with other violations such as spitting or littering. There are still gray areas, such as how the government will implement fines to non-residents and short-term visitors as offenders are allowed up to 21 days to settle their fines. Nevertheless, these measures provide great relief to non-smokers who are used to exposure to second-hand smoking.

Second, the Hong Kong government has imposed hefty taxes on cigarette products. Right after a seven-hour deliberation among city legislators, a buyer of pack of cigarettes that costs HK$50 (US$6.41) would have paid a tax equivalent to 70 per cent tobacco tax. The landslide decision to impose it — 33 support vs. eight against — appears like the plan coasted towards victory line unchallenged. But opposers expressed the idea was discriminatory and sweeps aside the poor, citing smoking as one of the few forms of leisure they have left. The rising cost of cigarettes at shops in the city also encouraged smuggling.

No smoking ads are also pervasive across the territory. From television broadcasts on buses and newspapers to posters at residential estate lobbies and YouTube videos, smoking was generally treated as an unpopular habit that isolates a smoker from the society.

A territory is considered smoke-free once the ratio between smokers and non-smokers reach 5 per cent or less, a similar target imposed by developed economies such as New Zealand and Finland. As Hong Kong tries to squeeze the ratio and approach that “elite” status, tobacco companies are expected to fight for their rights and may take legal actions against these restrictions. Looking back at Hong Kong government’s efforts, not everyone is pleased but, at least to me, it’s done many people a favor. We’ve already suffered from roadside pollution and accused factories at Pearl River Delta many times for record pollution levels. Cigarette smoke is the last thing we’d like to add in our air quality woes.

Even a single cigarette can be hazardous to young adults

Last Updated: Monday, October 24, 2011,18:55

Even a single cigarette can be hazardous to young adults 	Washington: A new study has revealed that smoking even a single cigarette can impair health for young people.

It is understood that smoking leads to a reduction in levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), which is a marker for airway inflammation.

However, there is limited knowledge about smoking-induced changes in the production and exchange of nitric oxide (NO) in young adults.

The Greek researchers studied eight women and eight men with a mean age of 23 years and a smoking history of less than eight pack-years,

They found that after smoking a single cigarette, the airway tissue concentration of NO increased by 26 percent, and the FeNO levels decreased by 15.6 percent.

This reduction can lead to a limited flux of NO in the airways of young adults, significantly impairing health.

This research was presented at CHEST 2011, the 77th annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP).


First Published: Monday, October 24, 2011, 18:55

Prof .   J u d i t h   L o n g s t a f f   M a c k a y , O B E , S B S , J P

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