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E-cigarette use and asthma in a multiethnic sample of adolescents

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Now health chiefs endorse vaping devices for smokers

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ASH Thailand says e-cigarette is harmful to health

The Action on Smoking and Health Foundation or ASH Thailand insists electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes is harmful to health.

http://englishnews.thaipbs.or.th/ash-thailand-says-e-cigarette-harmful-health/

Warning of the danger of e-cigarettes came from ASH Thailand executive secretary Professor Dr Prakit Vathesatogkit as advocates to vaping claim it is safe to health.

One strong advocate to electronic cigarettes is Mr Maris Karunyawat after he posted on his Facebook page informing the benefit of e-cigarettes and encouraging tobacco smokers to e-cigarettes citing laboratory tests by scientists that e-cigarettes is 95% safer than tobacco cigarettes.

But Dr Prakit rebuffed the claim saying the tests claimed by the e-cigarette advocate was untrue and was not accepted by scientists, particularly in the United States.

He said although vaping does not create smokes like tobacco smoking, but e-cigarette vapour is harmful to lung and blood vessel tissues.

In addition, scientists also found that those vaping e-cigarettes have tendency to turn to conventional smoking.

Meanwhile the Department of Disease Control also affirmed that e-cigarette is harmful to health.

It said e-cigarette vapour contains more than 250 harmful chemicals, 70 of which can cause cancer.

It went on saying that a claim by e-cigarette advocates that vaping is more safer than tobacco smoking, is just an assessment from experts with no exact certified source.

Instead the department said some of these experts were funded to conduct research by producers of e-cigarettes.

Latest survey in 2015 showed that 4.7% of Thai male teenagers from 13-17 years-old chose to vaping while vaping among female teenagers was 1.9%, and the trend is growing.

Is Vaping As Harmful As Smoking Cigarettes? Here’s What You Need To Know

Vaping seems to have taken the mantle of becoming the healthier alternative to smoking, along with the fact that they were designed with the motive to help smokers eventually quit.

http://www.indiatimes.com/health/healthyliving/is-vaping-as-harmful-as-smoking-cigarettes-here-s-what-you-need-to-know-324703.html

In fact, the trend has caught on so rampantly that it’s set to outsell traditional cigarettes by the end of 2023!

With the FDA regulating these products since 2016, it comes as no surprise that vaping is due to become the norm, surpassing traditional smoking in time to come.

In a report on the use of e-cigarettes in Canada, a report previously stated that “Among those whose primary reason for use is to help to quit tobacco, a similar proportion no longer smoke (24%), and this may be considered the success rate for this method of smoking cessation.”

How is vaping different from smoking?

To differentiate itself from tobacco products, vaping is the process of smoking nicotine without inhaling the other harmful substances in tobacco—out of which there 70 known carcinogens. Some products contain little to no nicotine in them. Canada for instance still does not approve of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes.

These battery-powered devices heat the liquid that contains nicotine and/or other flavours, which in turn is inhaled as the vapour.

There is no smoke without fire, however

Since the key objective of switching to e-cigarettes is to cut down the number of cigarettes you smoke, researchers have been assessing the ‘relative harm’ vaping can cause to your tissues.

A study conducted by Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, a head and neck cancer specialist at the University of California at San Diego and her team found that cells lining human organs sustained up to twice the DNA damage seen in unexposed cells. They were also five to 10 times more likely to wither and die than unexposed cells even if the vapour contained no nicotine, the addictive ingredient in conventional and most electronic cigarettes, as reported in New Scientist.

“Without the nicotine, the damage is slightly less, but still statistically significant compared with control cells,” says Wang-Rodriguez, who led the research.

The toxins from the flavouring are another cause of concern

“E-cigarette vapour is known to contain a range of toxins which include impurities in the e-cigarette liquids and toxins generated when solutions are heated to generate vapour,” says John Britton, a toxicologist at the University of Nottingham, UK. “Some are carcinogenic, so it’s likely some long-term users of e-cigarettes will experience adverse effects on their health, and the authors fo the study conducted by Rodriguez and company are correct to point out that these products should not be considered risk-free,” he says. But if smokers can’t give up completely, e-cigarettes are safer than smoking, he says, as reported in New Scientist.

They caused considerable damage to your key blood vessels; similar to normal cigarettes

A study conducted by researchers at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Rome states that vaping has an impact similar to the what normal cigarettes have on the stiffening of you heart’s aorta, as reported the Independent, UK.

The lead researcher, Professor Charalambos Viachopoulos of the University of Athens said, “We measured aortic stiffness. If the aorta is stiff you multiply your risk of dying, either from heart diseases or from other causes. “There could be long-term heart dangers. They are far more dangerous than people realise.”

The problem lies with the rising number of teens taking to smoking E-cigarettes

A 2014 high school survey conducted in the US found that 17 percent of 12th graders reported the use of e-cigarettes compared to 14 percent who smoked traditional cigarettes. The lower price points at which they are promoted, their perception of being safer than traditional cigarettes, the various flavours they come in and the fact they’re in trend make it a very attractive option for the youth.

Adolescents and young adults who try e-cigarettes are more than three times as likely to take up smoking traditional cigarettes as their peers who haven’t tried the devices, states a recent research review published in Reuters Health.

E-cigarette use, or vaping, was as least as strong a risk factor for smoking traditional cigarettes as having a parent or sibling who smokes or having a risk-taking and thrill-seeking personality, the researchers found.

“E-cigarette use among teens and young adults could increase the future burden of tobacco by creating a new generation of adult smokers who might have otherwise not begun smoking,” said lead study author Samir Soneji of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice in New Hampshire.

“To the extent that e-cigarette use mimics the behaviour of smoking a cigarette—handling the e-cigarette, the action of puffing, and the inhalation of smoke—it sets the adolescent up for easily transitioning to smoking,” added Soneji. “Like transitioning from driving a Tesla to driving a Chevy.”

Dr Brian Primack, a researcher at the University of Pittsburgh stated that “Young people report that there is a lot of pressure among e-cigarette only users to smoke a ‘real’ cigarette,” Primack said by email. “It may be somewhat analogous to the fact that teens who use flavoured alcohol are often pressured socially to step up their game to harder forms of alcohol.”

Although e-cigarettes claim to be less harmful than conventional cigarettes it could make sense to pay heed to the lack of conclusive long-term evidence

Cigarette smokers are well aware of the perils of smoking normal cigarettes. The New England Journal of Medicine states that smoking tobacco reduces your life span by at least 10 years. But studies on smoking e-cigarettes remain largely inconclusive.

A review of studies published in the journal Tobacco Control reveals that the long-term effects of the vaporised form are not known yet. For instance, it is not known if the chemical propylene glycol, which is mixed with the other chemicals in e-cigarettes known to irritate the respiratory tract, could result in lung problems after decades of vaping, says Dr Michael Siegel, a tobacco researcher and professor of community health sciences at the Boston University School of Public Health in Live Science.

Besides, “because e-cigarettes have been on the market for only about 10 years, there have been no long-term studies of people who have used them for 30 to 40 years. Therefore, the full extent of e-cigs’ effects on heart and lung health, as well as their cancer-causing potential, over time is not known,” says Stanton Glantz a professor of medicine and the director of the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco to Live Science.

 

E-cigarette fluid poisonings on rise in Maritimes, says expert

IWK Regional Poison Centre received 34 calls related to concentrated nicotine last year, up from one in 2013

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/nicotine-poison-e-cigarette-increase-new-brunswick-1.4141007

The number of poisoning incidents related to the concentrated nicotine cartridges used for electronic cigarettes is increasing, according to the clinical leader of a poison control centre in the Maritimes.

“It’s definitely on the rise as they become more available to the public,” said Laurie Mosher, of the IWK’s Regional Poison Centre in Halifax, which takes calls from health-care professionals in New Brunswick and from citizens in Nova Scotia and P.E.I.

The first call Mosher tracked was in 2013. In 2014, the number jumped to 14, then 21 in 2015, and 34 in 2016, she said.

The incidents involve people of all ages, but children were involved in 12 of last year’s calls, or 35 per cent, said Mosher. That’s up from three calls, or 21 per cent, in 2014.

“As a product becomes more available and more people are using it, and especially people with small children or teenagers in the house, it is likely to go up,” she said.

On Monday, a nine-year-old girl in Fredericton was taken to hospital after drinking an e-cigarette fluid called Unicorn Milk and suffering nausea, chest cramps and dizziness.

The Grade 5 student, who was diagnosed with nicotine poisoning, discovered the vial of concentrated nicotine with her friends on their school playground at É​cole des Bâtisseurs. They all tasted drops from the fluid, which is used for electronic vaping of cigarettes.

The girl’s mother, Lea L’Hoir, said the children were tempted to try the strawberry-flavoured fluid because it smelled good, and its container was decorated with a brightly coloured image of a unicorn.

National total not tracked

The number of such incidents across Canada is unclear. There is no central data collection centre for poisonings, said Mosher.

There are five poison centres across the country that serve all of the provinces, except New Brunswick and Newfoundland, which are covered by 811 and Tele-Care.

New Brunswick’s 811 line has received only one call regarding liquid nicotine poisoning in the past two years, according to the Department of Health.

The call was in November 2016, said department spokesperson Geneviève Mallet-Chiasson.

Mosher worries the numbers will continue to grow. “I think it definitely has potential for concern. So I don’t think we’re making too much of it.”

Even small amounts problematic

The symptoms experienced depend on exposure, said Mosher, who is also a registered nurse. Just a drop or two can lead to nausea or vomiting. It can also be very irritating if the substance gets into the eyes, she said.

“Larger amounts can cause tremors, seizures, and then it can also go the other way and they can have drowsiness,” said Mosher.

“So certainly if a child ingested a mouthful it could be very toxic. We haven’t had any severe toxicity as of now in our centre, but there certainly is potential for that,” she said.

“It could be life-threatening, depending on how much they got a hold of.”

Label guidelines needed

Mosher contends part of the problem is a lack of labelling guidelines for the cartridges.

Health Canada doesn’t regulate the labelling of vape products, but the sale of the products to people 18 or under is banned.

Mosher said the nicotine comes in different concentrations and the labels are not clear. For example, a label might indicate 16 mg, but there’s a big difference between 16 mg per mL and 16 mg in the entire cartridge.

In addition, the packaging is appealing to young children and the flavours appeal to teenagers.

The lack of warning symbols and lack of child-resistant packaging is very concerning, said Mosher.

“I would treat it like any other poisonous product, it should be kept out of reach of children, it should be regulated,” she said. “And it should not be appealing to young children.”

Call for tougher regulations

Earlier this week, the Canadian Cancer Society called on the federal government to move quickly on tougher regulations surrounding the labelling of vaping products.

A federal bill that would regulate the manufacture, sale and labelling of vaping products awaits approval in the Senate.

The bill would also give Health Canada the regulatory authority to enforce policies on childproof caps and to restrict certain flavours that critics say are aimed at a younger market.

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in the U.S. reported in 2014 that the number of calls to poison centres involving e-cigarette liquids rose from one per month in September 2010 to 215 per month in February 2014. Almost 52 per cent of the calls involved children under the age of five.

The first four months of this year, poison centres in the U.S. reported 795 calls about exposure to the liquids.

If a child accidentally ingests the fluid, Mosher recommends calling a poison centre or 911​.

When Public Health and Big Tobacco Align

Nobody trusts the tobacco industry, and it’s easy to understand why. For decades, industry executives knew that smoking caused cancer and heart disease yet publicly denied the dangers of cigarettes. It relentlessly attacked its critics. Documents that emerged in the 1990s showed that the industry targeted teenagers, knowing that the earlier someone became addicted to cigarettes, the more likely they would be lifelong smokers. And so on.

https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-03-09/when-public-health-and-big-tobacco-align

In the 1980s and 1990s, the public health community went to war with the tobacco industry. Though the war largely ended in 1998 with Big Tobacco agreeing to a multi-billion-dollar settlement with the states, it remains a powerful memory for public health.

To this day, most tobacco-control advocates view the cigarette companies as being every bit as duplicitous and evil as they were in the bad old days. Some years ago, I asked Stanton Glantz, perhaps the leading anti-tobacco scientist in the U.S., what his ultimate goal was. He didn’t say it was to eliminate the scourge of smoking. He said: “To destroy the tobacco industry.”

What brings this to mind is an excellent cover story in the upcoming issue of Bloomberg Businessweek about the efforts of the tobacco industry to devise and market so-called reduced risk products like electronic cigarettes — products that give users their nicotine fix without most of the attendant carcinogens that come with combustible tobacco.

Although the tobacco companies have done decades of R&D on smokeless products, the business was dominated early on by startups like NJOY, which is today the largest independent e-cigarette company in America. From the start NJOY has said that a big part of its mission was “to end smoking-related death and disease.” And from the start, messages like that have been scorned by the public health community.

Ingesting nicotine in some smokeless fashion is vastly safer than smoking a combustible cigarette. (In the words of the late South African tobacco scientist Michael Russell, “People smoke for the nicotine but die from the tar.”) Last year, the Royal College of Medicine issued a report saying that e-cigarettes were some 95 percent safer than cigarettes.

Even so, the public health community in the U.S., led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has done everything it can to demonize smokeless products. Some of this has been with good reason: to try to keep kids from picking up an addictive habit. But this effort has also helped to create the impression that smokeless products are as dangerous as cigarettes. One result, sadly, is that many long time smokers have refused to try them, even though they could save their lives.

My sense in talking to tobacco-control officials over the years is that too many of them simply don’t believe in a reduced-harm approach. We give heroin addicts methadone not because methadone is good but because it is better than heroin. With cigarettes, however, the public health mindset appears to be all or nothing — that the only “right” thing for smokers to do is to go cold turkey.

But the lingering distrust of the tobacco industry has also had a lot to do with public health’s unwillingness to acknowledge the potential benefits of alternative products. Matt Myers, the president of the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, has often complained, for instance, about the marketing of e-cigarettes, saying that companies are using the same tactics to hook teenagers that Big Tobacco once used.

With the e-cigarette market clearly established, the four big tobacco companies — BAT, Reynolds American, Altria (formerly Philip Morris) and Philip Morris International (spun off from Altria) — have proclaimed themselves all in.

Philip Morris International is an especially interesting case: Not only does it have an array of e-cigarettes and other smokeless products, but as the Bloomberg Businessweek story points out, it has publicly proclaimed that its goal is to lead the world into “a smoke-free future.” The home page of its website asks, “How long will the world’s leading cigarette company be in the cigarette business?”

As astonishing as it is that a company with $26 billion in tobacco revenue last year would be calling for the end of cigarettes, I believe Philip Morris is sincere. It has spent around $3 billion in research. Its new flagship product, called IQOS, heats tobacco but doesn’t burn it — which the company believes will be more satisfying to smokers than vaping. IQOS already has 7 percent of the tobacco market in Japan, and is being rolled out in other countries.

Philip Morris recently asked the British government that tobacco products “be taxed according to their risk profile.” In other words, it wants the government to impose higher taxes on cigarettes to encourage smokers to move to reduced-risk products. What tobacco company has ever done that before?

In the U.S., Philip Morris has done something extraordinary: It has made a submission to the Food and Drug Administration to get the right to market IQOS as a reduced risk product. The expensive submission consumed 2.3 million pages and is backed by a great deal of research, including several clinical trials. So far, none of the U.S. e-cigarette companies have attempted to get such a designation, and it is a big problem. How do you sell a reduced risk product when you can’t tell anybody it reduces risk?

The business case for diving into this market is that it’s a product category that’s growing, while the cigarette market is shrinking. Philip Morris doesn’t want to be left behind. But there is no particular need for the company to set out such a transformative agenda, at least not yet. The small smokeless companies are not much of a threat. NJOY filed for bankruptcy last fall. And under a 2009 law, every company in the e-cigarette industry will have to file something called a premarket tobacco application with the FDA by August 2018. The submissions will cost, on average, over $450,000, and the companies will have to show that their products have some public health benefit. There is a legitimate chance that some small companies won’t be able to clear the hurdle.

No, Philip Morris is pushing as hard as it is, I believe, because it wants to get on the right side of the issue, finally — to be viewed as a good corporate citizen. When I spoke to Glantz the other day about the company’s new anti-smoking agenda, he said, “I don’t believe them.” (He added, “If they were serious, they would stop marketing cigarettes right now.”)

No doubt many others in the tobacco-control community feel the same way. They still loathe Big Tobacco, and view Philip Morris’s new strategy as just another deception. But the truth is, if there is ever going to be a serious move from cigarettes to less dangerous products, it will have to come from Big Tobacco. They have the R&D resources, they have the marketing apparatus — and, it appears, they have the will.

Public-health advocates don’t have to trust Philip Morris, or any other tobacco company. They don’t have to believe what I believe in order to arrive at the same conclusion: that the advocates should be rooting for the companies’ innovations — pushing them, double-checking their data, making sure regulations are in place to prevent their products from being marketed to kids. The advocates should also be spreading the word that there is an alternative to cigarettes. Who really cares whether it’s Big Tobacco or some other entity that reduces smoking deaths? What matters is that it happens.

The tobacco wars are long over. Continuing to fight the cigarette companies may bring a certain satisfaction to the veterans on the public-health side. But joining forces is the way to save lives.

This column does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board or Bloomberg LP and its owners.

To contact the author of this story:
Joe Nocera at jnocera3@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor responsible for this story:
Philip Gray at philipgray@bloomberg.net

Vapors Of High-Powered E-Cigarettes May Cause Cancer

http://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/10054/20170309/vapors-of-high-powered-e-cigarettes-may-cause-cancer.htm

People might have to stop powering their e-cigarettes to the highest level as scientists have found out that its vapors can cause cancer. There are significant levels of cancer-causing benzene in the vapors of those e-cigarettes in the highest power, stated Portland State University scientists.

The result of the study was published on March 8 in the online journal “PLOS ONE”. The chemistry professor James F. Pankow led the research team, reported EurekAlert. The level of benzene they found from the high powered e-cigarettes was thousand times higher than in the surrounding air. It also depends greatly on the device itself. If it is not at its highest level, the benzene levels are not that high.

When the e-cigarette fluid additive chemicals benzoic acid or benzaldehyde is present it added so much to the benzene levels. However, of course, the level of this is nothing compared to the level of a conventional smoke from a cigarette. Benzene is one component of gasoline. It is very bad for people.

It has been linked to a number of illnesses that are very grave and can cause death. Diseases like leukemia and bone marrow failure are few of the examples of diseases a person can acquire with benzene. Benzene is usually found in the urban areas where industrial emissions are very rampant plus fuel tank leaks. This chemical has been deemed as the largest single cancer-risk air component in the U.S.

Meanwhile, according to Science Daily, the smoke that conventional cigarettes release is affecting the natural healing process of lungs. The blocking then leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. Cough, bronchitis and breathing difficulties are the major signs of COPD. The findings were published in “American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine”. It was from the researchers at the Helmholtz Zentrum München, a partner in the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), and their international colleagues.

An individual with COPD does not heal its own lungs anymore. Researchers are now trying to find out why.

Vaping Is Less Terrible For You Than Cigarettes (Still Not Great For You, So Don’t Start)

Over time, people who smoke e-cigarettes seem to pile up fewer toxins in their bodies than people who smoke traditional cancer sticks.

https://www.fastcoexist.com/3068010/vaping-is-less-terrible-for-you-than-cigarettes-still-not-great-for-you-so-dont-start

Vaping devotees, you have been vindicated: In the first long-term study comparing e-cigarettes with regular old cigarettes, researchers found that e-cigs aren’t quite as bad for you as the tobacco they replace. In fact, transitioning to vaping may end up being a good way to help people quit smoking altogether.

The study, funded by Cancer Research U.K., found that people who switched from tobacco to e-cigarettes for at least six months “had much lower levels of toxic and cancer-causing substances in their body than people who continued to use conventional cigarettes.” The conclusion: e-cigarettes are less toxic than tobacco.

The study followed 181 participants over a six-month period. The participants were split into five groups: “combustible” cigarettes users, e-cigarette users, users of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) like patches or gum, and people who smoke combustible cigarettes while also using either e-cigarettes or other NRT products.

Most studies up until now, as noted in the report, have examined the toxins in the actual vapor of the e-cigarette and compared that to the toxins in tobacco. But because the actual absorption levels of substances from e-cigarettes are not known, this may not be an accurate way to determine actual toxicity. Also, different vaping devices may deliver differing amounts of chemicals to the body.

This study instead examined the levels of toxins and carcinogens in the body over time, and found that they are lower in users of e-cigs than in regular smokers, and comparable to those found in people using other NRTs.

This is a big deal. While taking up vaping from scratch is still a bad idea, regular smokers who switch to e-cigarettes could do themselves considerably less harm than if they keep smoking tobacco. Ideally, e-cigarettes would be, like nicotine patches, used as an aid to eventually wean yourself off nicotine altogether, but even if you switch permanently to vaping, you’ll be healthier.

Vaping is still a young phenomenon—e-cigarettes were only patented in 2003—and the research is still scant. Even this study only looks at 181 individuals, and is funded by an organization that has a vested interest in reducing cancer. But really, it seems that pretty much anything is better for you than smoking. Apart from sitting down, that is.

E-cigarettes may pose the same or higher risk of stroke severity as tobacco smoke

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarettes) vaping may pose just as much or even higher risk as smoking tobacco for worsening a stroke, according to a preliminary study in mice presented at the American Heart Association’s International Stroke Conference 2017.

https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-02/aha-emp021517.php

Researchers found:

Mice exposed to e-cigarette vapor for 10 days or 30 days had worse stroke outcome and neurological deficits, than those exposed to tobacco smoke.

E-cigarette exposure decreased glucose uptake in the brain. Glucose fuels brain activity.

Both e-Cig and tobacco smoke exposure for 30 days decreased Thrombomodulin (anti-coagulant) levels.

From a brain health perspective, researchers said, electronic-cigarette vaping is not safer than tobacco smoking, and may pose a similar, if not higher risk for stroke severity.

Use of e-cigarettes is a growing health concern in both smoking and nonsmoking populations. Researchers said rigorous studies are needed to investigate the effects of the nicotine exposure via e-cigarettes on brain and stroke outcome.

Ali Ehsan Sifat, Graduate Student/Research Assistant, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, Texas.

Clean Indoor Air Act – Use of Electronic Cigarette Devices – Prohibition

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