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August, 2017:

The changing nicotine products landscape: time to outlaw sales of combustible tobacco products?

Abstract

Combustible tobacco products are unique both for the extraordinary harm they cause, and the fact that more than 50 years after these harms became known, they continue to be widely and legally available globally. However, the rapid evolution of the nicotine product marketplace in recent years warrants a re-assessment of the viability of phasing out commercial sales of combustible tobacco, and presents an opportunity to end the exceptionalism of combustible tobacco being permitted for sale.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053969

Bulk tobacco smuggling increases, worrying OLAF and Commission

Illegal sale of cut tobacco is on the rise in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, depriving state budgets of millions of euros in unpaid taxes.

https://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/news/bulk-tobacco-smuggling-increases-worrying-olaf-and-commission/

The EU’s anti-fraud office OLAF says the reasons for the increase are not currently clear, while the Commission is considering extending the excise system to raw tobacco to address the situation.

‘Bulk’ or ‘loose’ tobacco is a type of tobacco usually sold in non-branded packs or bags on the black market. It can be used in the counterfeit cigarette production but also legally in ‘Roll Your Own’ (RYO) cigarettes.

According to a study published last December by Crime & Tech, a spin-off company of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore and Transcrime, the trend of illicit trade in bulk tobacco is on the rise. In the whole of Europe, more than 48% of the total volume of cut tobacco in 2015 was consumed illegally.

In the EU alone, the amount of illegally sold bulk tobacco consumed in eight member states accounted for 32.2% of the total cut tobacco consumption.

In at least nine European countries, seven of which are in the Balkans, where tobacco growing is a tradition, illegal bulk tobacco accounts for more than half of the total amount of cut tobacco consumed. The countries are Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Poland, Croatia, Slovakia, Albania, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

Massive tax losses

In addition, the study estimates that the illegal trade of bulk tobacco generates a shortfall of nearly €1 billion in tax income for the member states.

Poland has already been severely hit by illicit trade in cigarettes and bulk tobacco further worsened the situation.

In Croatia, the newest EU member, the potential revenue loss is estimated at €88.9 million with bulk tobacco representing a whopping 84.9% of the share of fine cut tobacco consumption.

OLAF: The situation is unclear

Contacted by EURACTIV, OLAF’s press office stressed it was aware of the results of the study and the increase of bulk tobacco seizures in Europe.

“However, the reason for that increase is not currently clear,” OLAF said in a written reply. It has yet to be clarified whether this is mainly a domestic problem concerning tobacco growers in some EU member states or if there are wider implications involving illegal imports from third countries, it added.

“According to our information, the main countries affected in the EU were identified as Poland, Greece, Croatia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia,” OLAF emphasised.

Extending the excise system?

The EU’s Budget Commissioner Günther Oettinger recently replied to a parliamentary question on the issue by recognising that smuggling of bulk tobacco was a “growing and worrying phenomenon”.

In an effort to address the situation, the Commission is carrying out a review of its directive on the excise duty applied to manufactured tobacco, he said.

“One of the issues the Commission is looking at in that context is whether to extend the excise system to raw tobacco, which is currently exonerated from excise duties,” Oettinger noted.

A Commission spokesperson told EURACTIV that EU member states have instructed the executive to review the current rules governing excise duty on tobacco. A public consultation to gather views on the possible options for a revision of the rules has now finished.

“But before taking any decisions, we also need to carry out an impact assessment and a lot more technical work,” the spokesperson stressed, underlining that it was too early to predict the conclusions of this review.

“The Commission will carefully listen to EU governments and fully consider their requests and views […] we would also recall that any proposal would need the unanimous support of all 28 EU governments for it to be approved,” the EU official added.

Sources familiar with the issue have told EURACTIV that adding a particular product to the excise system does not necessarily mean putting an extra tax on them but simply makes them easier to track.

‘Extending the excise system’ refers to the Excise Movement and Control System (EMCS) which monitors the movements of excise goods within the EU until the duties are paid or the goods are exported.

The idea to extend the excise system to raw tobacco would provide more information on the movement of raw tobacco and help the fight against illicit trade.

In practice, this would mean that raw tobacco would become an excise good with a zero rate, EURACTIV has been informed.

The same sources explained that this option is just one of the ideas but the benefits of enhanced control on one hand and administrative burden and compliance cost on the other would need to be weighed carefully.

Call for increased resources to tackle tobacco smuggling

An organisation which represents more than 3,000 retailers is demanding that the Government provides increased resources to Customs units to crack down on cigarette smuggling, and also support a bill which provides on-the-spot fines for those who purchase illicit tobacco, alcohol, and solid fuel.

http://www.irishexaminer.com/ireland/call-for-increased-resources-to-tackle-tobacco-smuggling-457886.html

Retailers Against Smuggling (RAS), representing small and medium-sized retailers nationwide, says the Government should not increase excise on tobacco products in the forthcoming budget, as it would only lead to further smuggling.

RAS spokesman Benny Gilsenan, who runs a shop in Dublin, also urged the Government to support a Fianna Fáil-proposed Sale of Illicit Goods Bill which provides for on-the-spot fines for purchasers of illicit products.

He said that, with Brexit looming, the Government has to provide increasing resources to the Revenue Commissioners to tackle the potential for even more cross-border alcohol, tobacco, and solid fuel smuggling.

It is estimated, by Grant Thornton, the illicit trade in tobacco products cost the Irish exchequer €2.4bn in lost revenue between 2010 and 2015.

A standard pack of cigarettes in a legitimate shop costs around €11.50, whereas a smuggled pack costs approximately €5 to the buyer.

Ireland is 189% more expensive for tobacco products than the average European price, and 175% higher for alcohol.

Legitimate cigarettes in some parts of Europe can be bought for as little €3 a pack, even with excise duty in the country of origin paid.

However, major smugglers have been turning to fake cigarettes, known as illegal whites, which are made in sweatshops in Asia, Eastern Europe, and the United Arab Emirates.

The packets come with fictional brand names such as Excellence, Palace, President, CK, Gin, Ling, and M&G and cost as little as 20c a packet to manufacture.

They have been found to contain asbestos, lead, arsenic, traces of rat poison, and human excrement.

“The Revenue Commissioners stated in the recent Tax Strategy Group papers that we must ‘remain vigilant that reductions [of seizures] may be due to changes in smuggling activity’,” said Mr Gilsenan.

“This is a great concern to retailers, especially as Minister [Simon] Coveney recently warned of the increased danger of smuggling with an unresolved border situation.”

He pointed out that the legitimate trade of alcohol, tobacco, and solid fuel accounts for up to 50% of a retailer’s business turnover.

“The ever-increasing excise applied to tobacco products is undermining our ability to do business whilst making life considerably easier for criminal engaged in smuggling,” he added.

The Sale of Illicit Goods Bill proposed by Deputy Declan Breathnach provides for on-the-spot fines.

Chinese customs seize 600 tonnes e-cigarette oil

Customs in southern China recently seized 600 tonnes of smuggled electronic cigarette oil, with a total value of 300 million yuan (about 44 million U.S. dollars).

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-08/21/c_136543768.htm

Over 320 police raided four groups who were suspected of smuggling the oil from the United States, according to Zhou Bin, head of Gongbei Customs Office, which administers Zhuhai and Zhongshan cities in Guangdong Province.

The four companies were based in Shenzhen and Xiamen and supplied the majority of the e-cigarette oil in the Chinese market, according to Zhou.

In recent years, sales of electronic cigarettes have grown by more than 300 percent annually, but supervision of the industry is still weak, Zhou said.

Most of the oil sold in China is imported, he said.

Twenty people have been placed under criminal detention following the raid, and further investigation is underway.

TobaccoUnmasked at Sri Lanka observatory

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E-cigarettes: How safe are they for cardiovascular health?

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Pulmonary toxicity of e-cigarettes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28522559

Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short- and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products. Over the last several years, research into the potential toxicities of e-cig aerosols has grown exponentially. In the interim, regulatory policymakers across the world have struggled with how to regulate an increasingly diverse array of suppliers and products, against a backdrop of strong advocacy from users, manufacturers, and tobacco control experts. Herein we provide an updated review of the pulmonary toxicity profile of these devices, summarizing evidence from cell culture, animal models, and human subjects. We highlight the major gaps in our current understanding, emphasize the challenges confronting the scientific and regulatory communities, and identify areas that require more research in this important and rapidly evolving field.

Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Association%20Between%20Initial%20Use%20of%20e-Cigarettes%20and%20Subsequent%20Cigarette%20Smoking%20Among%20Adolescents%20and%20Young%20Adults%3A%20A%20Systematic%20Review%20and%20Meta-analysis.&holding=ucsflib&otool=cdlotool&cmd=search

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking.

OBJECTIVE:

To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking.

DATA SOURCES:

PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017. The search included indexed terms and text words to capture concepts associated with e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes in articles published from database inception to the date of the search.

STUDY SELECTION:

Longitudinal studies reporting odds ratios for cigarette smoking initiation associated with ever use of e-cigarettes or past 30-day cigarette smoking associated with past 30-day e-cigarette use. Searches yielded 6959 unique studies, of which 9 met inclusion criteria (comprising 17 389 adolescents and young adults).

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, respectively. Data and estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Among baseline never cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation between baseline and follow-up. Among baseline non-past 30-day cigarette smokers who were past 30-day e-cigarette users, past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up.

RESULTS:

Among 17 389 adolescents and young adults, the ages ranged between 14 and 30 years at baseline, and 56.0% were female. The pooled probabilities of cigarette smoking initiation were 30.4% for baseline ever e-cigarette users and 7.9% for baseline never e-cigarette users. The pooled probabilities of past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up were 21.5% for baseline past 30-day e-cigarette users and 4.6% for baseline non-past 30-day e-cigarette users. Adjusting for known demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cigarette smoking, the pooled odds ratio for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation was 3.62 (95% CI, 2.42-5.41) for ever vs never e-cigarette users, and the pooled odds ratio for past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up was 4.28 (95% CI, 2.52-7.27) for past 30-day e-cigarette vs non-past 30-day e-cigarette users at baseline. A moderate level of heterogeneity was observed among studies (I2 = 60.1%).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

e-Cigarette use was associated with greater risk for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and past 30-day cigarette smoking. Strong e-cigarette regulation could potentially curb use among youth and possibly limit the future population-level burden of cigarette smoking.