Clear The Air News Tobacco Blog Rotating Header Image

September 3rd, 2016:

Africa: Taxation Effective, But Not Enough, to Reduce Tobacco Consumption

By Diane Mushimiyimana

The ministry of health and the ministry of finance are planning to see how tobacco taxation can be further increased. This comes after an 11% reduction in consumption since the tobacco taxation policy was started.

Studies have shown that increasing tobacco prices by 10% will reduce consumption by 8%in low and middle income countries.

Figures from Minecofin indicate that basing on the selling price, tobacco taxation stood at 60% in 2001-2006 and at 120%in 2007- 2009. In 2009-2015, it was at 150%.

Based on retail price from 2015, the taxation now stands at 36% i.e. an extra Rwf 20 on each tobacco packet sold at the market.

While there are many varieties of tobacco products, the taxation only regards what is produced in industries.In Rwanda, there are two main products: Intore, the local brand which costs Rwf 1,000per packet, and Dunhill (imported) costs Rwf2,000.

Emmanuel Nkurunziza, the head of taxation department at Minecofin, says the ministry is yet to decide on how much tax should be added on tobacco products since it is a decision that needs consultations.

“People should understand that increasing tobacco taxation is not in the interest of increasing the country’s revenue. We get revenues but a considerable amount is spent on the expensive treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)yet that money can be used for other development projects.Therefore, will encourage the population to quit smoking,” he said.

According to the NCD Risk Factor Survey 2013/14, the adult smoking prevalence stands at 14%. Dr. Marie Aimee Muhimpundu, the head of NCD Unit at the RBC, says measures to curb consumption are crucial considering that tobacco is one of the most common riskNCD factors such as heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, type 2 diabetes and many types of cancers.

“Research shows that tobacco increases the risks for NCDs by 80%. Therefore, we are convinced that high taxation on tobacco products can lead to high purchase and hence, discourage consumption which in the process reduces health risks,” she said.

Dr. Muhimpundu added that diseases linked to tobacco consumption are expensive to treat and advised people to quit consuming tobacco as prevention is better treatment.

She also mentioned that apart from increasing taxes, the ministry of health regularly reminds people of the consequences of smoking on occasions such as the world tobacco day. “We also work with different partners such as the police to reach the youth with anti-tobacco messages, mainly during anti-drugs campaigns,” she said.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco use was the second leading risk factor for all deaths worldwide in 2000. It is also a significant risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death globally.

WHO reports indicate that tobacco consumption is reducing in high income countries and many lower and middle income countries. However, deaths from tobacco use will continue to increase in the coming years, with over 175 million people expected to die by 2039.

One More Reason To Swear Off Tobacco: The Inflammatory Trap Induced By Nicotine

An Umeå-based team in collaboration with US researchers reveals a new link between nicotine and inflammation. They report that nicotine strongly activates immune cells to release DNA fibres decorated with pro-inflammatory molecules, so called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The continuous exposure to these NETs can harm the tissue and could explain the hazardous consequences of tobacco consumption for human health.

Tobacco use causes death of nearly six million people annually according to WHO. Nicotine is the major addictive and toxic component in tobacco products. In cells, nicotine signals via nicotine acetylcholine receptors to mediate dangerous effects on the consumer’s body. Nicotine is a major cause of inflammatory diseases among smokers and also non-smokers by passive inhalation, such as for instance chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). COPD is widely spread and affects more than 10 percent of the adult population in westernised countries. The molecular mechanisms underlying this inflammatory activity of nicotine are not well understood.

In a recently published article in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, researchers at the Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS) at Umeå University reveal a novel link between nicotine and inflammation. They found that nicotine activates neutrophils, in an undesirable fashion.

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cells that circulate in the blood stream ready to attack invading microbes with an arsenal of antimicrobial compounds. Neutrophils are essential to prevent infection by engulfing invading microbes, or by releasing reactive oxygen species as well as DNA fibres from their own nuclei, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NET release is a mixed blessing. Loaded with antimicrobial enzymes and pro-inflammatory molecules NETs are harmful to invading microbes, however, they can also potently harm the host’s own tissue, if not controlled in the right manner. In recent years, NETs have been attributed to be mediators of tissue damage in several inflammatory diseases, such as for instance small vessel vasculitis, arthritis and cancer.

For the first time, Ava Hosseinzadeh and colleagues at MIMS show that nicotine triggers NET release. The signal to trigger NETs is mediated by a specific acetylcholine receptor found on neutrophils and further signalled into the cell via a protein kinase known as Akt.

“This particular finding explains the missing piece of the puzzle of tobacco usage and inflammation,” says Ava Hosseinzadeh, who worked on this project during her doctoral dissertation. “This novel finding opens new avenues to understand the consequences of tobacco usage for human health and should be seen as one more convincing argument to quit nicotine usage in any form.”

“The next evident step is to demonstrate the NET-inducing capacity of nicotine in animal models and human samples,” says Constantin Urban, associate professor and project leader at Umeå University. “Such ‘in vivo’ studies will enable us to attract new funders and potentially interest of the pharma industry. Our finding could hopefully lead to novel anti-inflammatory therapies of tobacco usage related diseases.”