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Smokers Undeterred as Bills Keep Rising

Since the beginning of the past fiscal year (ended in March) the taxes collected on tobacco products are paid to the Health Ministry (50%), Education Ministry (25%) and Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs (25%) for anti-smoking campaigns

Iranians spend $1-1.5 million (40 to 50 billion rials) on tobacco products each day and the cost of treating tobacco-related disease is almost three times more than the amount spent on tobacco consumption.

During the past five years, the rate of tobacco consumption has only slightly decreased, studies conducted by the Health Ministry indicate. The rate is still high among adolescents and young people (the peak age for first trying of smoking has decreased from 13 to 10). The figure has also increased dramatically compared to the past decade, the Persian language weekly ‘Salamat’ reported.

“In 2006, Iranians smoked 50 billion cigarettes (worth $33.3 million). The figure reached 60-70 billion cigarettes in 2016,” said Dr Mohammadreza Madani, head of the Iranian Anti-Tobacco Association (IATA).

Another concern is the high prevalence of hookah (water pipe) for smoking flavored tobacco among young people. One hour of smoking hookah exposes a smoker 100-fold to the amount of smoke inhaled from a single cigarette. Even those people around a hookah smoker inhale smoke equal to 10 cigarettes.

Every year on May 31, the WHO marks World No Tobacco Day (WNTD), highlighting the health and additional risks associated with tobacco use, and advocating effective policies to reduce tobacco consumption.

The theme for World No Tobacco Day 2017 is ‘Tobacco – a threat to development.’

But irrespective of the programs to create awareness on the harmful effects of smoking, statistics show that 14-15% of Iranians from the 80 million population are regular cigarette smokers (more than 3% are women, and 20% men).

“Though most of the cigarette smokers are men, hookah smoking doesn’t vary by gender; 21.3% of women and 21.7% of men are hookah smokers,” Madani said.

Dodging Taxes

Iran is one of the nations that has signed the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), by which a country is committed to reduce the rate of tobacco consumption every year (by implementation of both price and tax measures as well as non-price measures to reduce demand for tobacco).

Pointing to Article 8 of the National Comprehensive Law on Tobacco Control, Madani said, “According to the law passed in 2006, every year taxes on cigarettes should be increased by 10%.”

“However, there have been always obstacles in its implementation. For example, in 2010 the figure decreased to 5% due to ‘manipulative tactics’ by the powerful tobacco lobby. Tobacco producers said that high taxes on cigarettes would lead to an increase in cigarette smuggling, and thus managed to reduce the tax.”

However, in January this year, lawmakers passed cigarette and tobacco tax slabs to be implemented under the sixth five-year economic development plan (2017-22).

Based on the new law, the tax slab on locally-produced tobacco and cigarettes is 10%; for local brands jointly produced by domestic and foreign manufacturers, it is 20%; for domestically produced cigarettes with foreign brand names the slab is 25%; and for imported cigarettes and tobacco, it is 40%.

Lawmakers also mandated the Ministry of Industries, Mining and Trade to announce the retail prices of cigarettes and all tobacco products to the relevant authorities for taxation purposes and for printing the tax rates on cigarette packs.

“Since the beginning of the past fiscal year (ended in March) the taxes collected on tobacco products are paid to the Health Ministry (50%), Education Ministry (25%) and Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs (25%). The Education Ministry is required to spend the money on increasing students’ awareness of harms associated with tobacco smoking,” Madani said.

Earlier, the tax money was given to the ministries of health and sports and youth affairs.

Facts About Tobacco

There are more than 7 million deaths from tobacco use every year, a figure that is predicted to cross 8 million by 2030 without effective and intensified action. Tobacco consumption is a threat to any person, regardless of gender, age, race, cultural or educational background. It brings suffering, disease, and death, impoverishing families and national economies.

Tobacco use costs national economies enormously through increased healthcare costs and decreased productivity. Some 80% of premature deaths from tobacco occur in low- or middle-income countries, which face increased challenges to achieving their development goals, the WHO website reports.

Tobacco growing requires large amounts of pesticides and fertilizers, which can be toxic and pollute water supplies. Each year, tobacco growing uses 4.3 million hectares of land, resulting in global deforestation between 2% and 4%. Tobacco manufacturing also produces over 2 million tons of solid waste.

By increasing cigarette taxes worldwide by $1, an extra $190 billion could be raised for development. High tobacco taxes contribute to revenue generation for governments, reduce demand for tobacco, and offer an important revenue stream to finance development activities.

Iran Nuclear Deal: Big Tobacco Sees Opportunity For Cigarette Market Amid Lagging Revenues Elsewhere

With international sanctions on Iran slated for repeal in the coming months, foreign tobacco companies are positioning themselves to enter a market they view as “a ripe fruit waiting to be plucked.” Above, a member of the Iranian army smokes as he rests at a park in central Tehran in 2009. Reuters/Raheb Homavandi

It’s not just Big Macs, Frappucinos, iPads and other stereotypical Western commercial products that could soon trickle legally into Iran. If sanctions are lifted, Tehranis might eventually have access to legal Marlboros and other Western cigarette brands that are otherwise smuggled into the country.

After the signing of a nuclear accord in July, international sanctions on Iran could be repealed as early as next year, and tobacco companies are jostling for their share in a major untapped market in the Middle East. For the past several years, cigarette sales in developed countries have lagged, spurring tobacco companies to pivot toward emerging markets. The addition of Iran could be a significant boon for these companies – depending on which ones secure a stronger foothold first.

“What it really comes down to is a battle over market share,” Esfandyar Batmanghelidj, who founded the Virginia-based Iran Tobacco Research Group and has published extensively on the political economy of smoking and the cigarette trade in Iran, said. “There’s definitely interest on the part of the traditional major global players in tobacco…in getting back into Iran in a serious way.”

The World Bank classifies Iran as an “upper middle-income” country, and its 80 million people make it the second-largest country in the Middle East by population, after Egypt. By some estimates, Iranians spend $3.3 billion on and smoke about 52.6 billion cigarettes every year. The number of smokers is rising, too, from 7.65 percent of the population in 2010 to 8.55 percent in 2014, according to a report published in August by Euromonitor International, a business intelligence research group based in London. Others have suggested that smoking rates are substantially higher. According to Kenneth Shea, a senior analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence, about 15 percent of Iranians smoke, and “that number has generally edged higher over the years,” he said. Batmanghelidj, meanwhile, estimated that smoking rates in Iran could exceed 20 percent.

The past decade of sanctions has largely closed Iran off from the West and the global economy, a scenario tobacco companies have been waiting to change. “The international cigarette industry has long viewed Iran as a ripe fruit waiting to be plucked,” said Euromonitor’s report. In addition to having rising smoking rates, “Iran is conveniently located, wedged between the tobacco industry’s established smuggling centers in the Middle East and the burgeoning tobacco markets in the Indian subcontinent and Russia,” the report said.

In Iran, a pack of cigarettes costs roughly U.S. $0.50 for a local brand and $1 for an international brand, offering little in the way as a financial deterrent to smoking. Meanwhile, the perception is growing among young women there that smoking cigarettes is a “fashionable way of relaxing,” according to the Euromonitor report. A government ban on public smoking has also hardly been a damper on the habit.

In Iran, the state-owned Iranian Tobacco Company controls 38 percent of the market, according to Encyclopedia Iranica, an academic reference project run by the Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University in New York. British American Tobacco and Japan Tobacco International control the majority of the remaining 62 percent.

Sanctions in the past decade have prevented foreign tobacco companies from legally importing their cigarettes in a way that was not extremely expensive or strapped with red tape. During the 1970s and 1980s, Western brands, like Winstons, Gauloises or Marlboros, were the most popular among Iranians, according to Batmanghelidj. But with restrictions slated to be scaled back, companies “can cost effectively import a much higher volume of cigarettes into the country and take back their market share,” Batmanghelidj said.

In developed countries, cigarette sales are declining as more people become aware of the health effects of smoking cigarettes. Government regulations have also helped drive down sales and consumption by banning smoking in many places and by imposing hefty taxes on packs of cigarettes. Overall, global cigarette sales declined 0.4 percent from 2013 to 2014. Shea, the Bloomberg analyst, said that the average global smoking rate had decreased slightly in recent years and that cigarette sales by volume had also diminished.

The industry itself has openly acknowledged this decline and its causes. “We think that individual smokers will consume fewer cigarettes each and smaller percentages of populations will smoke,” reads the section titled “The global market” on British American Tobacco’s website. “Regulation of the industry also continues to increase,” it added.

Sanctions on Iran cannot be lifted until the International Atomic Energy Agency, the global nuclear watchdog, finishes a report slated for completion Dec. 15 confirming that the country has fulfilled its obligations under the terms of the international accord, which bars it from developing a nuclear weapons program. But that hasn’t stopped some tobacco companies from making moves, albeit guarded ones.

Japan Tobacco International (JTI) , which along with British American Tobacco is one of two foreign tobacco companies to operate legally in Iran, recently bought Iranian cigarette manufacturer Arian Tobacco Industry for an undisclosed amount, the Financial Times reported in October.

The Financial Times reported that JTI made the move in an apparent effort to gain a foothold in the Iranian market ahead of the rumored entry of industry behemoth Philip Morris International, which according to its website controlled 15.5 percent of the tobacco market outside the U.S. in 2014. But a spokesperson for JTI said otherwise in an email to International Business Times. “We do not speculate on competitors’ commercial moves,” the spokesperson said, adding, “The acquisition was mainly aimed at consolidating our presence [in Iran].”

JTI has operated in Iran since 2002. “We have always believed in the economic potential of this country,” the spokesperson said. “Iran is a significant country with important natural resources and a large population. We have always believed that Iran meets many conditions to grow economically.”

Some tobacco companies have been silent about their post-sanctions ambitions in the Iranian market. Philip Morris International, maker of Marlboros, does not appear to have revealed plans — at least, not publicly — to jump into the Iranian market.

“We are following the developments on sanctions and will consider our business opportunities if and when warranted,” Philip Morris International said in response to emailed questions regarding its prospects in Iran.

But not everyone is looking forward to the possibility of having more tobacco companies in Iran. As of 2009, lung cancer was the fifth most common cancer in Iran, and its rates were increasing, Iranian researchers found in a study published that year. They attributed the increase in part to cigarette smoking. Health advocates fear that the advent of more companies will exacerbate the situation further.

Dr. Gholamreza Heydari, director of the tobacco prevention and control research center at Shahid Behesthi University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, said in an email that even though Philip Morris’ products were already available, albeit illegally, in the country, an increase in tobacco companies that are legally doing business there could lower cigarette prices and therefore increase smoking. He said it would undercut health advocates’ already struggling efforts to raise the price of cigarettes through taxes, setting up a fresh battle in the fight against Big Tobacco.

The impacts of cigarette packaging pictorial warning labels on smokers in the city of tehran



Cigarette smoking is considered the first preventable cause of death in the world. Social, familial, and personal factors play an important role in prevention or cessation of smoking. Educating the public in order to enhance their knowledge, change their attitude and improve their habits is also effective in this respect. In 2007, the executive protocol of the Comprehensive Law on Smoking Control was compiled in the Ministry of Health and according to the Article 5 of this law pictorial health warning labels had to be applied on cigarette packaging. This study was designed and conducted in 2 phases of before and 9 months after the implementation of this law and evaluated the effect of it on smokers’ knowledge, attitude and pattern of smoking.


This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted to evaluate the effect of cigarette packs’ pictorial health warning labels on the knowledge, attitude and smoking pattern of smokers residing in Tehran. After calculating the size of understudy population and estimation of the exclusions, 1731 subjects were randomly selected using the multiphase cluster method from the 22 districts of Tehran. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed according to the standard questionnaire of the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD). Qualitative and quantitative value and reliability of the variables including cigarette consumption, knowledge about the law, and pattern of smoking were evaluated in 2 phases and the quality of pictures and their effects on the mentioned variables were assessed in the 2(nd) phase.


Before adopting the pictorial warning labels in the first phase of the study, 1731 respondents were evaluated out of which 71.8% were males and 28.2% were females. These cases had an average of 17.6±12.3 years history of smoking. A total of 38% (675 subjects) used Iranian cigarette brands and 39.5% were aware of the implementation of pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs. In terms of smokers’ attitude towards the implementation of this law, they mostly had no opinion about it. A total of 33.3% stated that they may cut down on smoking as the result of this law. Men had a higher percentage of smoking a cigarette first thing in the morning before breakfast and women had a higher rate of consuming foreign cigarette brands (P < 0.001). In the second phase of the study, 1590 cases of the phase 1 subjects participated. Subjects had a significantly higher knowledge about the implementation of pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs (P < 0.001). Attitude towards this law did not change significantly compared to the first phase although the mean score improved by 0.07%. Enforcement of this law resulted in decreased consumption in 7.6% of the participants. However, the Wilcoxon test did not show any significant difference. In terms of the quality of pictures, 61.6% had no opinion, and 28.7% expressed that the pictures had poor quality. No significant difference was observed between the Iranian or foreign brands in terms of smoking rate after applying the pictorial warning labels.


We believed that the smoking rate would decrease after applying the pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packs. However, it did not happen. Also, adopting these labels did not have a significant effect on smokers changing their favorite brand from Iranian to foreign brands or vice versa. Type and quality of pictures require major revision and corrections.

Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages: an investigation on opinions of male smokers



Health warning labels on cigarette packages are among the most straightforward and important tools to communicate with smokers and various studies have illustrated their efficacy.


The current study aimed to investigate the opinions of male smokers in Mashhad city about the efficacy of health warning labels printed on cigarette packages on the smoking status of smokers.


This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a questionnaire. The research population included the male smokers of Mashhad. The participants were selected from the customers referring to the newsstands for cigarettes. The obtained data were analyzed employing SPSS software Version 16, and the statistical tests including Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman, and correlation coefficient of Pearson, Chi Square, Mann-Whitney, and Bonferroni correction were used in this regard.


In this research, there were 500 participants with the average age of 25 years. The initiation age of smoking was eight years while the maximum age was reported as 45 years. Results of this research about the effect of these labels on decreasing cigarette consumption rate showed that almost half of the participants believed that these labels were ineffective for them (52.2%) and other smokers (53.8%).Furthermore, significant relationship was found between the age and opinion of the smokers about the influence of these labels on reducing their cigarette consumption (P < 0.001).


To promote the effect of printed images on cigarette packages, it is recommended to consider the suitability of labels in the targeted culture. In addition, to be more effective consultation sites to quit smoking should be introduced under the images.